About This Chapter
NJBNC: Evolution & Diversity - Chapter Summary
In this chapter, you will explore the theory of evolution, learn about variance within a species and even examine how new species evolve. By the end of this chapter, you will have learned about:
- Theory of evolution
- Evidence supporting evolution
- Using fossil evidence to understand evolution
- Types of natural selection
- Artificial selection
- Relationships in evolution
- Gene variation and mutation
- Accommodation v. adaptation
- Sympatric and allopatric speciation
- Prezygotic and postzygotic barriers to speciation
- Environmental effects on evolution
Each lesson in this chapter has been designed to cover all of the material on this topic you may find on the exam. The lessons are comprised of short videos to help you visually learn the material, and there are transcripts of the lesson as a resource for note-taking and text-based learning. There are self-assessment quizzes at the end of each lesson so you can test your knowledge and see if you need to review the material again.
1. Theories of Evolution: Lamarck vs. Darwin
We'll look at the interplay between population genetics and environment. Are traits individually acquired or do entire populations evolve? The flying hamsters and a few other notable experiments will provide the answers.
2. Evidence for Evolution: Paleontology, Biogeography, Embryology, Comparative Anatomy & Molecular Biology
There is much support for the theory of evolution. This evidence comes from a variety of scientific fields and provides information that helps us trace changes in species over time. In this lesson, we'll look at this evidence and explore how it supports the theory of evolution.
3. Fossil Evidence for Biological Diversity, Speciation, & Mass Extinction
One of the best sources of evidence we have for evolution is the fossil record. Fossils provide a wealth of information on how species change over time and for exciting events like mass extinctions and new species formation.
4. Natural Selection & Adaptation: Definition, Theory & Examples
How does natural selection help shape the amazing types of animals we witness around us? In this lesson, we'll explore adaptations and what they can tell us about a species' past evolution.
5. Natural Selection: Definition, Types & Examples
We'll take a look at the types of natural selection that can occur. From flying hamsters to moths, you'll start to grasp the different paths organisms can take as they respond to their changing environments over time.
6. Artificial Selection in Evolution
Humans have been selectively breeding for desirable traits in plants and animals for a long time. This artificial selection allows for a lot of control in the breeding process but can also lead to unintended mutations within a population of organisms.
7. Evolutionary Relationships: Definition & Diagram
Just like you can build a family tree to show the relationships of your ancestors and their descendants, scientists can build trees to show the evolutionary relationships of species. In this lesson, learn how to interpret these evolutionary trees.
8. Causes of Microevolution: Natural Selection, Gene Flow & Genetic Drift
Environments are dynamic, which causes populations to be as well. In this lesson, you'll learn about microevolution, as well as the mechanisms behind it that cause changes in allele frequencies within populations.
9. Genetic Variability and Random Mutation
Evolution is driven by variation among populations. The amount of variability determines how well a population can adapt to environmental changes, while random mutations can provide new variations that help a population adapt to unexpected changes.
10. Individual Accommodation vs. Gradual Adaptation
Sometimes we encounter new environmental conditions that take some getting used to. As individuals, our bodies may quickly and temporarily accommodate for the short-term, but populations may adapt gradually for the long-term.
11. Speciation: Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation
Discover the definition of a species and learn more about how species split. Find out common terms related to the splitting of species and study what role polyploidy plays in the development of a species.
12. Prezygotic Reproductive Barriers & Speciation: Definition & Examples
We may take for granted why animals choose to mate with other animals of similar appearance, but it's not that simple. There are actually biological barriers to reproduction that can prevent even seemingly closely related species from reproducing. This lesson looks at one such category of hindrances, prezygotic barriers, which make fertilization impossible.
13. Postzygotic Reproductive Barriers: Definition & Examples
Do flying hamsters represent a separate species from your run-of-the-mill hamsters? We'll get to the bottom of this by performing crosses between the two hamster types. You'll explore postzygotic reproductive barriers and their possibly tragic consequences.
14. How Environmental Changes Impact Evolution
The process of evolution is pushed forward by an organism's need to adapt to changing situations. This lesson will help you understand how environmental changes can provide this push.
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Other chapters within the NJBCT: Study Guide & Practice course
- NJBCT: Organic Biochemistry
- NJBCT: Understanding Enzymes
- NJBCT: Cell Biology
- NJBCT: Molecular Biology
- NJBCT: Multicellular Organisms
- NJBCT: Matter & Energy Transformations
- NJBCT: Understanding Ecosystems
- NJBCT: Genetics & Heredity
- NJBCT: Scientific Method & Inquiry
- NJBCT: Using Math for Research
- NJBCT: Safety & Standards in the Lab
- NJBCT: Cooperative Scientific Learning
- NJBCT Flashcards