About This Chapter
NJBCT: Genetics and Heredity - Chapter Summary
Utilize this chapter as a study resource if you'd like to expand your knowledge of genetics and inherited traits before taking the NJBCT examination. The chapter contains video and text lessons that not only examine the processes by which our genes are inherited from our parents, but they explore traits that are environmental, or multi-factorial. Use this opportunity to also learn about the human genome project, model organisms and mutations. When you've studied sufficiently, you could be capable of:
- Comprehending genetics and genetic selection
- Explaining aspects of sexual and asexual reproduction
- Defining the genome, genetic engineering and the human genome project
- Understanding the properties of alleles, chromosomal linkage, point mutations and independent assortment
- Explaining Mendel's first and second laws
- Distinguishing between co-dominance and incomplete dominance
- Discussing human genetics
- Examining the ways in which missense, nonsense and silent mutations influence proteins
This chapter teaches with the help of animation, text and graphics. Experienced lesson instructors discuss the above concepts in conversational tones, making them easier to grasp. Use your mobile device to access the video and text lessons around the clock. View the fun videos and take the corresponding quizzes as much as you like. The timeline link will reveal the videos' main areas and allow you to immediately begin learning those subjects with one click.
NJBCT: Genetics and Heredity Chapter Objectives
When taking the NJBCT examination, you'll find multiple-choice questions as well as performance assessment tasks that require well-thought-out written answers. The five test sections are, Matter and Energy Transformation, Organization and Development, Interdependence, Heredity and Reproduction and Evolution and Diversity. This chapter's topics can be addressed during the Heredity and Reproduction category. The assessment is given over two days, and you should expect to spend one hour and 45 minutes answering test questions on both days.
1. Genetics: Heredity, Traits & Chromosomes
We view manipulation of genes in our crops and livestock as a recent development. Yet, man has been manipulating the genetic makeup of his food for thousands of years through cultivation and breeding. This lesson will begin to help you understand how genetics works.
2. Sexual Reproduction: Inheriting Genes from Each Parent
Organisms reproduce in order to make offspring. With sexual reproduction the offspring get a combination of the genetic material from two parents. Learn how the male and female reproductive cells, called gametes, come together during fertilization.
3. Basic Genetics: The Genome & Chromosomes
There are approximately 3 billion bases in the human genome. In this lesson, you'll learn more about the genome and its organization into chromosomes. We think about DNA often as the blueprint for life, but we can also think of it as the recipe for life with the nucleus being the library.
4. Properties of Alleles
What is a dominant phenotype and how will it affect Adrian's flying hamster research? Tune in as he studies homozygous and heterozygous genotypes and the phenotypes they produce.
5. Mendel's First Law: The Law of Segregation
Breaking up is a hard thing to do, but homologous chromosomes always go their separate way. What effect does chromosome segregation have on genetics? We look once more to Adrian's flying hamsters for answers.
6. Mendel's Second Law: The Law of Independent Assortment
Understanding how Mendel's law of independent assortment describes inheritance of genes is as easy as flipping a coin. Grab a few coins, cue up the video and see how.
7. Exceptions to Simple Dominance: Codominance and Incomplete Dominance
Have you ever wondered what it means if someone is a universal donor or acceptor of blood? See how genetic interactions play a key role in this trait.
8. Exceptions to Independent Assortment: Sex-Linked and Sex-Limited Traits
More men are color blind compared women. But often, not every brother, cousin or uncle in a family tree is color blind. Why not? How can genetics explain this seemingly complex inheritance pattern?
9. Crossing Over & Gene Linkage: Definition, Importance & Results
During this latest development of his flying hamster experiments, Adrian must learn about linked genes and recombinant chromosomes to unlock the mystery of the fire-breathing hamster. In this lesson, you'll look at another exception to Mendel's law of independent assortment.
10. Human Genetics: Multifactorial Traits & Model Organisms
How do we study human genetics when most traits arise from multiple genes? It's certainly more complicated that drawing a simple Punnett square. Never fear, for model organisms are here!
11. What is Genetic Engineering? - Definition and Examples
How do we make the insulin used by diabetic patients? In this lesson, you'll learn the basics of how genetic engineering can be used to transform a bacterial host cell into a genetically-modified organism that produces human insulin.
12. What is the Human Genome Project? - Definition, Purpose & Benefits
We often hear about scientific research being done but may not truly understand what that entails. This is not one of those times. The Human Genome Project has allowed many breakthroughs in genetic research that affect us in a very tangible way, right here, right now.
13. Effects of Mutations on Protein Function: Missense, Nonsense, and Silent Mutations
How does a tiny point mutation change the way a protein works? What are the consequences of base substitutions? In this lesson, we'll use an imaginary creature to explore missense, nonsense and silent mutations.
14. What is a Point Mutation? - Definition, Causes & Types
What are genetic mutations? How do they affect our DNA? This lesson covers the basics of point mutations and provides simple examples of different mutation types.
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Other chapters within the NJBCT: Study Guide & Practice course
- NJBCT: Organic Biochemistry
- NJBCT: Understanding Enzymes
- NJBCT: Cell Biology
- NJBCT: Molecular Biology
- NJBCT: Multicellular Organisms
- NJBCT: Matter & Energy Transformations
- NJBCT: Understanding Ecosystems
- NJBCT: Evolution & Diversity
- NJBCT: Scientific Method & Inquiry
- NJBCT: Using Math for Research
- NJBCT: Safety & Standards in the Lab
- NJBCT: Cooperative Scientific Learning
- NJBCT Flashcards