About This Chapter
NJBCT: Organic Biochemistry - Chapter Summary
As part of your preparations for the New Jersey Biology Competency Test (NJBCT), explore these short, engaging and mobile-device-compatible lessons about organic biochemistry. In these videos, you will review the different elements, structures and functions of biological molecules. Whenever you come across a topic that confuses you, send any questions you may have to our instructors via the teacher tabs so that you can master the material in this chapter about:
- Major elements that composes proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids
- Elements that are common to biological organisms
- Structures and functions of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins
- Amino acids, polymerization and peptide bonds
- Structures and functions of the 20 different amino acids
- DNA and its structure
- Chemical structures of nucleic acids and phosphodiester bonds
- Nucleobases and complementary base pairing
- Double helix structure and hereditary molecules of DNA
- The contrasts between RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA) and DNA
After watching a lesson video, reinforce your comprehension of the material presented in it by reading the lesson transcript that accompanies it. These transcripts are written overviews of the lessons that identify the key vocabulary of the chapter.
Taking the quizzes can help you to discover the lesson topics you don't understand. After you've completed the lessons and assessments of the chapter, be sure take the practice chapter exam to see if you know what you will need to in order to complete questions on the NJBCT about organic biochemistry.
1. Major Elements in Biological Molecules: Proteins, Nucleic Acids, Carbohydrates & Lipids
Bacterial cells have complex macromolecules built from simple molecules. In this lesson, we will look at the major elements in the building blocks of proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids.
2. Structure and Function of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are found in many foods that we eat and may be found as sugars, starches, or fiber. Learn more about these three distinct types of carbohydrates, and how they are distinguished through their chemical structures in this lesson.
3. Structure and Function of Lipids
Molecules called lipids have long hydrocarbon chains that determine the way they act. They can be fats, oils, or hormones, and even exist in our cell membranes. Learn more about the chemical structure and biological function of various lipids in this lesson.
4. Proteins I: Structure and Function
We need our proteins, not just as a major food group but for the many useful roles that they play in our bodies. In our introductory lesson to proteins, you'll learn about the many functions we rely on them to perform.
5. Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds
In this lesson, we'll take a deeper look at amino acids. You'll learn what makes a peptide, and what separates a protein from other kinds of amino acid bonds.
6. Proteins III: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids
How do amino acids form the intricate polypeptide chains found in proteins? It's a matter of chemistry. Join glycine, a special amino acid, as she sizes up the other amino acids.
7. Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure
How is progressing through higher order protein structures like crafting an essay? In this lesson, you'll explore everything from quaternary structures to denaturation as we show how the different structures are intertwined.
8. What is DNA? - Structure, Overview
This lesson will explore the race to find the structure of the DNA molecule, the parts of that structure and how they fit together, and how this knowledge has been used to advance mankind.
9. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds
In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.
10. DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing
Learn the language of nucleotides as we look at the nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. Armed with this knowledge, you'll also see why DNA strands must run in opposite directions.
11. DNA: Discovery, Facts, Structure & Function in Heredity
This lesson will help you to navigate the twists and turns of DNA's structure. We'll also clue you in on the amazing discoveries that put this nucleic acid in the limelight as the molecule of heredity.
12. Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)
In this lesson, you'll explore RNA structure and learn the central dogma of molecular biology. Along the way, you'll meet the three types of RNA and see how the cell uses them most effectively.
13. The Six Elements Found in Organisms
There are six elements that are commonly found in life on Earth. This lesson will tell you what these elements are and discuss what role they play in forming biomolecules.
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Other chapters within the NJBCT: Study Guide & Practice course
- NJBCT: Understanding Enzymes
- NJBCT: Cell Biology
- NJBCT: Molecular Biology
- NJBCT: Multicellular Organisms
- NJBCT: Matter & Energy Transformations
- NJBCT: Understanding Ecosystems
- NJBCT: Genetics & Heredity
- NJBCT: Evolution & Diversity
- NJBCT: Scientific Method & Inquiry
- NJBCT: Using Math for Research
- NJBCT: Safety & Standards in the Lab
- NJBCT: Cooperative Scientific Learning
- NJBCT Flashcards