About This Chapter
Nomenclature & Structure of Compounds - Chapter Summary
From the definition of inorganic compounds to examples of geometric and optical isomers, this chapter presents essential information on nomenclature and structure of compounds. These brief and engaging lessons also deliver material on the octet rule, Lewis structures of atoms, functional groups in organic molecules, and structural isomers. Upon completion of this chapter, you should feel confident to be able to:
- Discuss chemical nomenclature of organic and inorganic compounds
- Explain bonding of crystalline structures
- Describe molecule shapes according to VSEPR theory
- Draw a Lewis dot structure for polyatomic ions
- Recognize resonance in Lewis dot structures
- Represent single, double and triple bonds in Lewis structures
- Explain the different types of hydrocarbons of organic molecules
- Define geometric isomer
You will be able to customize your study of this information through the easy-to-use format and flexible platform, which can be accessed on a variety of devices. You can print the lesson transcripts if you prefer a hard copy to study. Through the lesson quizzes, you can easily assess your understanding and find out which topics you need to review the most.
1. Chemical Nomenclature for Organic Compounds
In this lesson, we will learn how to name organic compounds using chemical nomenclature. We will learn how knowing the name of a compound also helps us know the structure of the compound.
2. Chemical Nomenclature for Inorganic Compounds
Naming inorganic compounds can seem like a monumental task, but if you learn some basic rules it isn't so difficult. This lesson will go over naming binary molecular compounds, ionic compounds, oxyanions and acids.
3. What Are Inorganic Compounds? - Definition, Characteristics & Examples
In this lesson, we'll learn what makes a compound inorganic, discuss some typical characteristics of inorganic compounds, and provide several examples from everyday life.
4. Crystalline Structure: Definition, Structure & Bonding
Have you ever wondered how chemical compounds are held together? Did you know that every material has a specific type of structure and bonding? The way these materials are held together determines how it behaves. Read on to learn more about the crystalline structure.
5. VSEPR Theory & Molecule Shapes
In this lesson, you'll learn about the VSEPR theory and how it can be used to explain molecule shapes. Then, learn how to predict the shape of a molecule by applying the VSEPR theory to the Lewis dot structure.
6. The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms
Learn the octet rule and how it applies to electron energy levels. Identify valence electrons and learn how to determine them by looking at the periodic table. Also, discover how they pertain to the octet rule. Learn how to draw the Lewis diagram of an atom, and understand how it provides clues to chemical bonding.
7. Lewis Dot Structures: Resonance
In this lesson, we'll review Lewis dot structures and how to draw them. Then, learn about resonance and resonance structures for molecules and polyatomic ions. Afterwards, assess your new knowledge with a quiz.
8. Lewis Dot Structures: Polyatomic Ions
This lesson defines Lewis dot structures and explains how to draw them for molecules in step-by-step detail. We'll also explore polyatomic ions and how to draw Lewis dot structures for them.
9. Lewis Structures: Single, Double & Triple Bonds
Review what a Lewis dot diagram is and discover how to draw a Lewis dot structural formula for compounds. Learn how to represent single, double and triple bonds with lines instead of dots. Also, learn how compounds arrange themselves.
10. Functional Groups in Organic Molecules
Learn what an organic compound is and how their functional groups affect them. Identify the different types of functional groups including alcohols, alkyl halides, ketones, aldehydes, ethers, carboxylic acids and esters.
11. Organic Molecules: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Isomers
Learn more about carbon and hydrogen and see how these atoms come together to form distinct molecules. Also, study the difference between saturated and unsaturated molecules.
12. Structural Isomers: Definition & Examples
Molecular formulas don't always tell us how the atoms are arranged within a molecule. When one formula can lead us to different arrangements of atoms, the results are referred to as structural isomers, examples of which we'll explore in this lesson.
13. Geometric Isomers: Definition & Examples
This lesson provides a definition of geometric isomers, explains how they arise, and how to identify them. In addition to basic examples from chemistry, the lesson shares more complex examples from biochemistry to show how prevalent and vital geometric isomers are.
14. Optical Isomers: Definition & Examples
Isomers are molecules that are the same...yet different. The difference might be in the structure, or it might be in the three-dimensional arrangement. In this lesson, you'll learn about one specific type of isomer that falls into the latter category, the optical isomer.
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Other chapters within the NES Chemistry (306): Practice & Study Guide course
- Nature and History of Science
- Principles and Procedures of Scientific Inquiry
- Equipment, Safety Procedures & Hazards in the Chemistry Lab
- Impact of STEM on Society
- Physical & Chemical Properties of Matter
- Atomic Structure in Chemistry
- Trends of the Periodic Table
- Properties of Liquids & Solids
- Gas Laws
- Nuclear Processes
- Inorganic Chemistry
- Thermochemistry & the Laws of Thermodynamics
- Chemical Bonds & Molecular Forces
- Organic Molecules for Chemistry
- Reaction Rates in Chemistry
- Equilibrium in Chemistry
- Types of Reactions in Chemistry
- Overview of Stoichiometry
- Elements, Compounds & Mixtures
- NES Chemistry Flashcards