About This Chapter
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- Students who have fallen behind in understanding the chemical structure of DNA and RNA
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- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Nucleic Acids - DNA and RNA chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
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Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn answers to questions including:
- What is the chemical structure of phosphodiester bonds?
- How do complementary base pairings work?
- How does the term double helix structure apply to DNA?
- What are the different types of RNA?
1. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds
In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.
2. DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing
Learn the language of nucleotides as we look at the nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. Armed with this knowledge, you'll also see why DNA strands must run in opposite directions.
3. DNA: Discovery, Facts, Structure & Function in Heredity
This lesson will help you to navigate the twists and turns of DNA's structure. We'll also clue you in on the amazing discoveries that put this nucleic acid in the limelight as the molecule of heredity.
4. Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)
In this lesson, you'll explore RNA structure and learn the central dogma of molecular biology. Along the way, you'll meet the three types of RNA and see how the cell uses them most effectively.
5. Phosphodiester Bond: Formation & Overview
DNA molecules are held together by different types of bonds. In this lesson, you'll learn about the role of phosphodiester bonds in the structure of DNA.
6. rRNA: Sequence, Function & Synthesis
This lesson focuses on ribosomal RNA (rRNA). It will cover what rRNA is, what it does in our cells, and how it is made. At the end of the lesson is a short description of how rRNA is used in medicine and science.
7. Transposons: Definition & Types
Explore the motile world of genetics by learning more about the 'jumping genes' called transposons. Plentiful in many organisms, transposons have an active role in mutations, antibiotic resistance, and disease.
8. What is RNA? - Overview
This lesson explains the basic structure of RNA (ribonucleic acid). It also discusses the various components that come together in the formation of RNA and provides information about two of the most known forms of RNA. A short quiz will follow.
9. Alcohol and Protein Synthesis
How does alcohol affect your workouts? Is it good for you or bad for you? Can it influence hormone levels, and if so, does it matter? This lesson addresses these questions through an investigation into the role of alcohol on protein synthesis.
10. Rough ER Protein Synthesis
In this lesson, we'll learn what the rough ER is and what it's job is in the cell. We'll also look at the steps of protein synthesis and how it relates to the rough ER.
11. What Antibiotics Inhibit Protein Synthesis?
In this lesson we'll first review the basic steps of building new proteins through protein synthesis. Then we'll look at two main ways that antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis.
12. Bacterial Protein Synthesis: Definition, Process & Inhibitors
Bacteria use proteins for many purposes: structure, as enzymes, or for transport. Protein synthesis takes several steps working together. Antibiotics that prevent protein synthesis are used to cure bacterial infections.
13. First Step of Protein Synthesis
How are proteins made? How is the message coded for in DNA actually used? This lesson introduces the process of transcription, which is the first step in protein synthesis. A brief summary and quiz are included.
14. How to Increase Protein Synthesis
Scientists can genetically engineer bacteria to produce proteins to help humans. But how can scientists maximize the amount of protein they get? Read on to learn some strategies used to increase protein synthesis.
15. Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis
Mitochondria, the miniature powerhouses of the cell, act like tiny batteries to give us energy and to utilize oxygen. In this lesson we'll discuss how mitochondria make their proteins, and how these proteins are used.
16. Protein Synthesis Analogy
There are hundreds of thousands of types of proteins in living things, but they are all made using a similar process. This process is like building a house, with instructions to direct workers what to bring in and install the proper parts.
17. Protein Synthesis in Eukaryotes
What kind of cells are you made of and how do these cells make protein? In this lesson, we will answer these questions through an investigation into protein synthesis in eukaryotes.
18. Protein Synthesis in Prokaryotes
In this lesson, we'll review what prokaryotes are first. Then, we'll explain the steps and process of protein synthesis in prokaryotes and discover what makes it unique from protein synthesis in other cells.
19. Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
Protein synthesis is essential for living cells. Medications that can stop pathogens from making proteins help get rid of infections. This lesson talks about how different types of protein synthesis inhibitors work.
20. Protein Synthesis: Definition & Purpose
In this lesson, we will learn about proteins are made in living things. We will also learn why proteins are an important component of the daily diet of organisms, especially people.
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