About This Chapter
Nutrition & the Digestive System - Chapter Summary
In this chapter on nutrition and the digestive system, self-paced lessons cover subjects like the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. By studying the lessons, you will also learn why diarrhea and nausea occur. After completing the chapter, you should be poised to do the following:
- Discuss macronutrients and recommendations for energy intake
- Describe what happens to food in the upper gastrointestinal tract
- Recall functions of the lower gastrointestinal tract
- List chemicals produced in accessory organs of the digestive system
- Explain how the autonomic nervous system controls digestion
- List general motility disorders
- Discuss the impact of eating too much or not enough protein
Each video is accompanied by a full written transcript, which can be used for a text-based learning option. If you find yourself struggling with a topic, you can submit questions to instructors. A short quiz is available for each lesson to test your understanding of nutrition and the digestive system.
1. Calories: Definition, Purpose & Total Count
A calorie is a unit of measurement used to express energy. There are three nutrients that provide the body with calories: carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Learn about these macronutrients and recommendations for total energy intake: EER and AMDRs.
2. Digestive System I: The Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
Did you know that there are digestive enzymes in your saliva? It's true. As soon as you put a piece of food in your mouth, the digestive process begins. Join us with this first of two lessons about the human digestive system, where we'll follow food through the upper gastrointestinal tract from the mouth through the stomach.
3. Digestive System II: The Lower Gastrointestinal Tract
The lower gastrointestinal tract is the part of the digestive system that is responsible for the last part of food digestion and the expulsion of waste from the body. In this lesson, we'll look at each part of the system and what functions each serves in the process of digestion.
4. Accessory Organs of the Digestive System
Your pancreas, liver and gallbladder are accessory organs that help with the chemical digestion of food. Learn about the enzymes and other chemicals produced and stored in these organs as well as how they help you break down the foods you eat.
5. Anatomy and Physiology of the Stomach and Autonomic Nervous System Controls
In this lesson, you will learn how the unique anatomy of the stomach - including rugae, gastric pits and gastric glands - makes it a perfect organ for digestion. You will also learn how the autonomic nervous system controls digestion.
6. General Motility Disorders: Diarrhea and Constipation
This lesson will discuss diarrhea and constipation. More interestingly, we'll actually discuss the many different forms of diarrhea, such as osmotic and secretory. We'll also learn what melena and hematochezia mean.
7. Health Effects Associated with Proteins
If a diet is deficient in protein, it can lead to a type of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), such as kwashiorkor or marasmus. If a diet is too high in protein, it can lead to dehydration or increase the risk of heart disease or cancer. Learn about all of this and more in this lesson.
8. General Motility Disorders: Nausea and Vomiting
This lesson will explain what nausea, vomiting, and regurgitation are. We'll also explain how and why nausea and vomiting occur, how they can be treated, and a few other fun facts!
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