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- Learn the significance of the invention of writing.
- Examine the history of money and understand how it allowed for the rise of complex economies.
- Explain how religion came about during the Stone Age and Bronze Age.
- Understand the significance of the Fertile Crescent.
- Take a look at Sumerian art and architecture.
- Discuss the Epic of Gilgamesh.
- Become familiar with the heirs of the Sumerians.
- Examine Assyrian art and architecture.
- Explain the significance of Hammurabi's Code.
- Differentiate between polytheism and monotheism.
- Learn about the Hebrews and their beliefs.
- Describe what ancient Egypt was like during the Bronze Age.
- Become familiar with the style of ancient Egyptian art.
- List the characteristics of ancient Egyptian architecture.
- Explore the history of metallurgy.
- Take a look at the Iron Age empires.
- Describe the style of ancient Persian art and architecture.
- Define Zoroastrianism.
- Learn the history of the cult of Mithras.
- Understand the politics of the Mesopotamian kings.
1. The Invention of Writing
Writing, the original IT: This lecture covers the limitations and obstacles of aural transmission. It describes the invention of Cuneiform in the fertile crescent. Finally, it explains how writing enabled literate societies to dominate their pre-literate neighbors.
2. The History of Money and Rise of Complex Economies
This lecture covers the development of money in response to the needs of complex economies. It begins with a discussion of gift economies. It then examines the factors that led to the growth of commodity economies. Find out how we came to use money, rather than goods, for commerce.
3. How Religion Developed in the Stone Age and Bronze Age
Have you ever wondered exactly how religion developed in the ancient world? Check out this lesson to see how the impact of cities, writing and invasion upon religion, the ascent of the sky father and the descent of the mother goddess contributed to the development of religion.
4. The Fertile Crescent: Cradle of Civilization
Complex civilization wasn't always the norm. In this lesson, we are going to check out the origins of civilization as we know it, and see where, when, and how this new system of living first began.
5. Sumerian Art and Architecture
This lesson explores the artwork of one of the earliest civilizations: the Sumerians. Sumerians created beautiful works of art that inspired other cultures for centuries after their decline.
6. The Epic of Gilgamesh
Witness the Epic of Gilgamesh, a story of adventure, love and friendship. This long poem will help us examine the hallmarks of civilization for a Sumerian and the importance of dreams. We'll also cover the Sumerian contributions to the epic form of literature.
7. Heirs of the Sumerians: Babylonians, Hittites, Hurrians and Assyrians
This lecture covers the history of Mesopotamia from the disintegration of the Sumerian Empire to the great Bronze Age collapse. We'll explore the destructive force of the Elamites and the Hittites as well as the imperial ambitions of the Babylonians, the Mittani and the Assyrians.
8. Assyrian Art and Architecture
This lesson explores the unique characteristics of a fierce and violent culture: the Assyrians. The Assyrians were a warrior culture living in ancient Mesopotamia who used art and architecture to display their power.
9. Hammurabi's Code: The Advent of Law, Prerequisites and Implications
This lecture discusses the need for law and the benefits of a judicial system. Next, it reviews the history of early law codes, like those of Ur-Nammu and Hammurabi. Finally, we look at the implications of law for kings.
10. What's the Difference Between Polytheism and Monotheism?
There have been many religions throughout human history, and each one has had a unique set of beliefs. In this lesson, we're going to look at the two main categories into which most of the world's religions fit and then compare them to each other.
11. The Hebrews and Their Beliefs
This lesson covers the Hebrews and their beliefs. We look at the core tenets of Judaism and explore some of the stories from the Torah. Finally, we see how the Hebrews' history of oppression impacted their religion and the world today.
12. Ancient Egypt in the Bronze Age
This lecture first compares the natural features of the Nile valley to those of Mesopotamia, enumerating the advantages that geography offered the Egyptians. This is followed by a brief discussion of why Egyptian material culture survives while so much of Mesopotamian culture has been lost. The lecture ends with a a whirlwind tour through 3,000 years of Egyptian history broken up into traditional historical periods.
13. Ancient Egyptian Art: History and Style
This lesson provides a brief look at the exquisite art of the Ancient Egyptians. Egyptian art contains images of people and deities that represent the culture in which they lived.
14. Iron vs. Bronze: History of Metallurgy
This lecture explores the transition from the bronze age to the iron age. The difficulties of working with iron are enumerated. The properties of iron and steel are compared to those of bronze. Finally the implications for this transition on civilization are considered.
15. Ancient Egyptian Architecture: History, Characteristics & Influences
This lesson explores the architectural wonders of ancient Egypt. Some of these structures include temples, pyramids and monumental statues constructed long ago and surviving into modern times.
16. Iron Age Empires: Neo-Babylonian, Neo-Assyrian and Persian Empires
This lesson is a survey of the three empires that emerged after the Bronze Age collapse. Parts of the survey are viewed from the perspective of the Israelites, who found themselves the playthings of powerful empires. The lecture focuses on a few specific rulers and their impact on their empires. It also traces patterns of imperial tactics throughout this period and region.
17. Ancient Persian Art and Architecture: History & Style
This lesson explores the artwork of one of the most powerful and expansive empires in history: the Persian Empire. Persian artwork contained vivid imagery that recorded the success of the Persian kings in battle and their cultural tendencies.
18. Zoroastrianism: Definition, Beliefs & History
Major religions, like Christianity and Islam, have been popular since ancient times, but what religion was popular before these belief systems developed? This lesson explores the beliefs of Zoroastrians, one of the earliest forms of organized religion.
19. Cult of Mithras: Myth & History
The Cult of Mithras was a mysterious religion popular in Rome in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th centuries. This lesson explores the secretive beliefs, practices, and history of the cult and its initiates.
20. Mesopotamian Kings: History, Politics & Religion
Ancient Mesopotamia was a land of chaotic weather and inner turmoil. Religion became a political weapon for fighting among the city-states. This lesson explores the link between religion and politics in the ancient land.
21. Darius the Great: Biography, Quotes & Facts
Meet Darius the Great, the ruler of the Persian Empire at its greatest height, in this lesson. Discover how the son of a governor became the king of the greatest empire of its time, and learn about his influence on the Persians.
22. King Solomon: History, Overview
In this lesson we explore the ancient Israelite kingdom's most successful king, Solomon. Through conquest diplomacy and key improvements in infrastructure, Solomon's reign rivals those of some of history's greatest monarchs.
23. Persian Empire: History, Culture & Timeline
The Persian Empire was one of the first major empires in the ancient world. Meet major leaders and explore the history and culture of the Persian Empire in this lesson.
24. Standard of Ur: Definition & Concept
In this lesson we explore the artwork and possible uses of the Standard of Ur. First excavated from the Royal Tombs of Ur in the 1920s, its function has been debated by historians ever since.
25. Stele of Hammurabi: Definition & Concept
Learn about the use of stele to communicate information about a society in the ancient world. Discover the Stele of Hammurabi and explore its impact on the ancient world and the modern world.
26. The Hurrian in Mittanni: People & Language
In this lesson we explore the ancient Hurrian people and the Mitanni empire which they inhabited. Though the empire was short-lived, the Hurrian language is unique in both time and region, unrelated to the other languages in the region.
27. Thracian: History, Culture & Gladiators
In this lesson, we explore the ancient Indo-European ethnic group, the Thracians. Residing largely in what is today Bulgaria, the Thracians were famed for their fighting and considered barbarians by many ancient commentators.
28. Ur in Mesopotamia: Definition & Explanation
In this lesson we explore the ancient Mesopotamian city of Ur. One of the greatest cities of the ancient world, Ur was a commercial and cultural center that once boasted one of the largest ziggurats in Mesopotamia.
29. Inanna Goddess: Descent, Myth & Summary
Learn about Inanna, Sumerian goddess of love, war, wisdom, and fertility and the patron goddess of the city-state Uruk. Inanna was the powerful goddess in Sumerian mythology.
30. Who Was Moses? - Story & History
Moses is one of the main characters of the Hebrew Bible. A historical figure of great importance, his personality and actions helped set the tone for the three great religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
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