About This Chapter
NYSTCE Biology: Transcription & Translation Process - Chapter Summary
Get ready for questions about genetic transcription and translation processes on the NYSTCE Biology exam with these fun study tools. You'll watch engaging video lessons on the following topics:
- The central dogma and protein synthesis within cells
- Transcription messenger RNA
- Induction and transcriptional repression in the regulation of gene expression
- Operon-controlled transcription in prokaryotic cells
- RNA processing in eukaryotic cells
- The genetic code
- Role of peptide bonds and ribosomes in genetic translation
- Process of mRNA translation to protein
Use the video lessons and transcripts to quickly brush up on biology topics you may not have studied in awhile or to fill in knowledge gaps. Each lesson is less than ten minutes long and features video tags so you can jump to the specific topics you want to review. Test yourself with our self-assessment quizzes to see how much you know and what you still need to work on.
NYSTCE Biology: Transcription and Translation Process Chapter Objectives
The NYSTCE Biology exam is part of the certification process for biology teachers in the state of New York. The exam consists of 90 selected-response questions and one constructed-response assignment. The study materials in this chapter can help you answer questions on transcription and translation in the cell biology and biochemistry subarea of the exam. This subarea of the exam makes up about 17% of the total test score. Among other topics, these test questions could ask you about the structure and function of DNA and RNA, including the role of DNA and different types of RNA in protein synthesis and the control of gene expression in cells.
1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.
2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA
In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.
3. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction
Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.
4. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell
Is gene regulation really as simple as flipping a switch? What are the parts of an operon, and how do they function to control gene transcription? We'll study the lac operon to answer these questions.
5. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons
In this lesson, we'll explore the unique considerations for gene regulation in the eukaryotic cell. We'll walk through RNA splicing of introns and exons and the addition of the 5' cap and poly(A) tail.
6. Overview of the Genetic Code
Ever wonder how so much genetic material can exist in every cell? In this lesson, we take a look at how the genetic code works, specifically with how codons signal for amino acids.
7. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation
Ribosomes play a major role in the process of genetic translation. In this lesson, learn about the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds help to create chains of amino acids.
8. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps
Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the NYSTCE Biology (006): Practice and Study Guide course
- NYSTCE Biology: Scientific Inquiry
- NYSTCE Biology: Research Methods
- NYSTCE Biology: Measurement & Observation
- NYSTCE Biology: Laboratory Basics
- NYSTCE Biology: Cell Biology
- NYSTCE Biology: Prokaryotic Cells
- NYSTCE Biology: Cell Communication
- NYSTCE Biology: Inorganic Chemistry
- NYSTCE Biology: Organic Compounds
- NYSTCE Biology: Nucleic Acids
- NYSTCE Biology: Enzymes
- NYSTCE Biology: Metabolic Biochemistry
- NYSTCE Biology: Plant Cells
- NYSTCE Biology: DNA Replication
- NYSTCE Biology: Genetic Engineering & Cloning
- NYSTCE Biology: Cell Cycle & Division
- NYSTCE Biology: Classical, Molecular & Population Genetics
- NYSTCE Biology: Genetic Mutations
- NYSTCE Biology: The Origin of Life on Earth
- NYSTCE Biology: Evolution
- NYSTCE Biology: Protists, Fungi & Viruses
- NYSTCE Biology: Plant Biology
- NYSTCE Biology: Plant Reproduction & Growth
- NYSTCE Biology: Animals & Evolution
- NYSTCE Biology: Social Behavior of Animals
- NYSTCE Biology: Circulatory, Respiratory, Digestive, Excretory & Musculoskeletal Systems
- NYSTCE Biology: Nervous, Immune & Endocrine Systems
- NYSTCE Biology: Reproduction & Development
- NYSTCE Biology: Human Reproductive Systems
- NYSTCE Biology: Ecological Principles & Processes
- NYSTCE Biology Flashcards