About This Chapter
NYSTCE Chemistry: Chemical Bonds - Chapter Summary
Lessons in this chapter are designed to help you competently answer chemical bonds questions on the NYSTCE Chemistry assessment. Upon completion of this chapter, you will be prepared for the following on the exam:
- Discussing the basics of chemical bonds, the octet rule and Lewis structures of atoms
- Sharing the meaning of ions, Lewis dot structures and ionic compounds
- Writing ionic compound formulas, and analyzing VSEPR theory and dipole moments
- Identifying properties of covalent compounds, and predicting bond polarity and ionic character of covalent bonds
- Explaining dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding and ion-dipole forces
- Providing details about London dispersion forces, how to predict molecular shape and molecular orbital theory
- Describing metallic bonding, intramolecular bonding and organic molecules
Instructors present the lessons in an engaging manner that makes your review of chemical bonds fun. Watch the lessons in any sequence that suits your studies, and revisit them as often as needed until you feel you've absorbed the materials.
NYSTCE Chemistry: Chemical Bonds Chapter Objectives
This chapter is filled with resources you can use to prepare for the NYSTCE Chemistry assessment. The lessons are available as videos and full transcripts that allow you to study using the most comfortable format for you. Below each video is a timeline that lets you identify and jump to key topics within the lessons without watching them in their entirety. When you're ready to test your comprehension of the materials, you can take self-assessment quizzes and a chapter exam.
The NYSTCE assessment gauges educators' readiness to secure the certification needed to teach chemistry in New York State classrooms. The computer-based test is broken into seven subareas and consists of 90 selected-response items and 1 constructed-response item. Topics in this chapter on chemical bonds are found in the Energy, Chemical Bonds and Molecular Structure subarea, which constitutes about 16% of the total test. Preparing for questions in this subarea increases your chances of earning the assessment's minimum passing score of 220.
1. Overview of Chemical Bonds
Learn about the most common kinds of chemical bonds: ionic, covalent, polar covalent, and metallic. Discover how they form and why they hold together. Take a quiz and see how much knowledge you've held onto.
2. The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms
Learn the octet rule and how it applies to electron energy levels. Identify valence electrons and learn how to determine them by looking at the periodic table. Also, discover how they pertain to the octet rule. Learn how to draw the Lewis diagram of an atom, and understand how it provides clues to chemical bonding.
3. Ions: Predicting Formation, Charge, and Formulas of Ions
Learn how ions are formed using the octet rule. Use the periodic table to predict the charge an atom will have when it becomes an ion. Learn whether an ion is a cation or anion and how to write the formula depending on what charge the ion has.
4. Lewis Dot Structures
Although drawing dots around elements sounds pretty straight forward, Lewis dots are a little more complicated. This lesson will explain how to draw Lewis dots for single, double, and triple bonds, as well as polyatomic ions.
5. What Are Ionic Compounds? - Definition, Examples & Reactions
Ionic compounds are a common, yet special type of chemical compound. In this video lesson, you will learn about their formation and structure and see examples of compounds formed by ions.
6. Writing Ionic Compound Formulas: Binary & Polyatomic Compounds
In this lesson, you will learn how to write the chemical formulas for both binary ionic compounds and polyatomic ionic compounds when you are given only the name of the compound. You will see that it is actually quite simple when you learn the steps described in this lesson.
7. Covalent Compounds: Properties, Naming & Formation
Learn about covalent bonds, how covalent compounds are formed and the properties inherent to covalent compounds, such as low melting and boiling points, in this lesson. Also, learn what rules to follow to name simple covalent compounds.
8. Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character
Learn about covalent bonds and their two types: nonpolar covalent bonds and polar covalent bonds. Discover how to predict the type of bond that will form based on the periodic table. Learn what ionic character means and how to determine it.
9. VSEPR Theory & Molecule Shapes
In this lesson, you'll learn about the VSEPR theory and how it can be used to explain molecule shapes. Then, learn how to predict the shape of a molecule by applying the VSEPR theory to the Lewis dot structure.
10. Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole & Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces
Learn about intermolecular vs. intramolecular forces. Learn the different intermolecular bonds (including hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole and ion-dipole forces), their strengths, and their effects on properties, such as boiling and melting points, solubility, and evaporation.
11. London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces
Learn how London dispersion forces are created and what effect they have on properties such as boiling and melting points. Discover this weak intermolecular force and how it is one of the Van der Waals forces.
12. Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape
You'll learn how to explain how shapes of molecules can be predicted using valence bond theory and hybridization. When finished, you'll understand the difference between sigma and pi bonds and how the VSEPR theory, along with the hybridization theory, helps predict the shape of a molecule.
13. Molecular Orbital Theory: Tutorial and Diagrams
Learn how to sketch the overlap of orbitals to form sigma and pi bonds. Use the molecular orbital theory to determine bond order. Discover how bond order affects bond strength and bond energy.
14. Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model & Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors
Learn why metallic bonding is called the electron sea model. Discover why metals bond the way they do and why they are shiny, malleable and conduct electricity well.
15. Intramolecular Bonding and Identification of Organic and Inorganic Macromolecules
Understand what a macromolecule is and be able to identify both organic and inorganic macromolecules. Organic molecules include proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids.
16. Organic Molecules: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Isomers
Learn more about carbon and hydrogen and see how these atoms come together to form distinct molecules. Also, study the difference between saturated and unsaturated molecules.
17. Functional Groups in Organic Molecules
Learn what an organic compound is and how their functional groups affect them. Identify the different types of functional groups including alcohols, alkyl halides, ketones, aldehydes, ethers, carboxylic acids and esters.
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Other chapters within the NYSTCE Chemistry (007): Practice and Study Guide course
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Foundations of Scientific Inquiry
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Physical & Chemical Properties
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Atomic Structure & Quantum Theory
- NYSTCE Chemistry: The Periodic Table
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Gases
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Nuclear Transformation
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Principles of Calorimetry
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Thermodynamics
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Chemical Reactions
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Chemical Equilibrium
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Acid-Base Chemistry
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Stoichiometry
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Solutions & Solubility
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Nuclear Reactions
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Chemicals & the Environment
- NYSTCE Chemistry Flashcards