About This Chapter
NYSTCE Chemistry: Gases - Chapter Summary
Acquiring new skills and knowledge about gases is paramount to doing well on the NYSTCE Chemistry exam. Going through the lessons, you will cover these topics:
- Kinetic molecular theory
- Definition and units of pressure
- Finding density of gases
- Dalton's Law
- The Boltzmann Distribution
- Effusion and diffusion
- Molar volume
- Boyle's Law, Gay-Lussac's Law and Charles' Law
- The Ideal Gas Law
- Real gases
In order to use the lessons in this chapter effectively, you need to review them more than once. This will help you remember information about gases when you're taking the NYSTCE Chemistry exam.
NYSTCE Chemistry: Gases Chapter Objectives
The NYSTCE Chemistry exam is geared towards helping you receive a certification in New York State as a teacher. On this test, there are multiple-choice questions which will test your ability to identify and describe different types of scientific laws.
The content that you will analyze in this chapter is included in the Subarea 2 section, which makes up 16% of the entire exam. In order to do well on this portion, you will need to know different gas laws. Remembering these laws is possible if you actively pay attention throughout each lesson.
1. The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Properties of Gases
What makes a gas ideal? What types of characteristics do ideal gases have? In this lesson, we will discuss the many characteristics of gases and how knowing the microscopic properties of gas particles will help you understand the macroscopic properties of a gas.
2. Pressure: Definition, Units, and Conversions
Have you ever wondered what pressure is and how it gets measured? In this lesson, we are going to define pressure and explain some of the units that are used to express measurements of pressure.
3. How to Find the Density of a Gas
The density of gas is more complicated than solids because gases are highly affected by temperature and pressure. This lesson will lead you through two equations to calculate the density of a gas.
4. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures: Calculating Partial & Total Pressures
In this lesson, you will learn how gases behave when they are mixed together and how to use Dalton's law of partial pressures to calculate partial and total pressures of gases. You will also learn how to use this information to explain how to find the partial pressure of a gas collected over water.
5. The Boltzmann Distribution: Temperature and Kinetic Energy of Gases
Gas particles are always moving around at random speeds and in random directions. This makes it difficult to determine what any one particle is doing at a given time. Luckily, the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution provides some help with this.
6. Diffusion and Effusion: Graham's Law
Have you ever been in a room where someone has put on perfume or scented lotion and a few minutes later you are able to smell it? What causes you to be able to smell something from so far away? In this lesson, we are going to use the kinetic molecular theory of gases to explain some of their behaviors and determine how we can compare the speeds of different gases.
7. Molar Volume: Using Avogadro's Law to Calculate the Quantity or Volume of a Gas
Have you ever wondered why a balloon expands when you blow it up? How something as light as air is able to exert a force large enough to inflate a balloon? In this lesson, you will learn about the relationship between the volume of a container filled with a gas and the number of gas particles that container holds. This relationship is known as Avogadro's Law.
8. Boyle's Law: Gas Pressure and Volume Relationship
Have you ever wondered how an air powered water gun works? It uses the fantastic properties of gases to make a summer day more enjoyable! In this lesson, we will be discussing Boyle's Law and the relationship between pressure and volume of a gas.
9. Charles' Law: Gas Volume and Temperature Relationship
In this lesson, we will discover why the wind blows and what causes a hot air balloon to rise, a couple of the applications of Charles' Law that explain the relationship between the volume and temperature of a gas.
10. Gay-Lussac's Law: Gas Pressure and Temperature Relationship
You may know that you aren't supposed to put an aerosol can in a fire because it could explode, but do you know why? In this lesson, we will explain Gay-Lussac's law, which shows the relationship between the temperature and pressure of a gas.
11. The Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant
Have you ever wondered why the pressure in your car's tires is higher after you have been driving a while? In this lesson, we are going to discuss the law that governs ideal gases and is used to predict the behavior of real gases: the ideal gas law.
12. Real Gases: Deviation From the Ideal Gas Laws
The ideal gas law is used to describe the behavior of ideal gases, but sometimes the conditions are such that gases behave differently. When this is the case we can use the van der Waals equation to describe the behavior of real gases under these non-ideal conditions.
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Other chapters within the NYSTCE Chemistry (007): Practice and Study Guide course
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Foundations of Scientific Inquiry
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Physical & Chemical Properties
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Atomic Structure & Quantum Theory
- NYSTCE Chemistry: The Periodic Table
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Nuclear Transformation
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Principles of Calorimetry
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Thermodynamics
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Chemical Bonds
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Chemical Reactions
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Chemical Equilibrium
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Acid-Base Chemistry
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Stoichiometry
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Solutions & Solubility
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Nuclear Reactions
- NYSTCE Chemistry: Chemicals & the Environment
- NYSTCE Chemistry Flashcards