About This Chapter
ORELA Chemistry - Thermodynamics - Chapter Summary
Increase your capacity to understand thermodynamics by reviewing the video lessons in this chapter. As preparation for the ORELA Chemistry examination, learn more about the ways in which energy can be changed from one form to another. For instance, you'll discover how energy can be turned into electricity and heat. You'll find activities that guide you in predicting spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions, and you can learn to calculate enthalpy values. Revisit these and other subjects in order to:
- Explain the laws of thermodynamics, including the zeroth law
- Explore state functions in thermochemistry
- Understand the process of enthalpy change
- Describe bond energy and standard enthalpies of formation
- Examine the uses for calorimetry and Hess's Law
- Understand entropy and the values that affect it
- Study free energy as well as endothermic and exothermic reactions
- Discuss the correlation between enthalpy, entropy and free energy
Engaging animated videos, multiple-choice quizzes, worksheets and written transcripts comprise this chapter. All of the topics above are delivered by knowledgeable educators who can also answer your questions on thermodynamics. Just submit your question using the ask-a-question feature. This can be found on the Dashboard area when you click the icon in the upper right-hand corner of the screen. Recent activities and additional course information can also be found there. Study at your own pace via your mobile device as you get ready to accurately address questions on thermodynamics during the ORELA Chemistry examination.
ORELA Chemistry - Thermodynamics - Chapter Objectives
Answer questions pertaining to thermodynamics when you get to the third content domain of the five-content domain ORELA Chemistry examination. Titled, Energy and Chemical Bonding, this domain is equal to 23% of the test score. In part, you should be able to predict the spontaneity of a chemical reaction and explain the applications of the laws of thermodynamics. Display your understanding and your readiness to teach these and other topics while answering the computer-based assessment's 150 multiple-choice questions. You should complete the examination within the specified three-hour-and-45-minute time frame.
1. The Laws of Thermodynamics
Learn about the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Find out how energy is generated, how it converts from one form to another, and what happens to energy in a closed system.
2. The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
After watching this video, you will be able to state the zeroth law of thermodynamics, what it means, and why it is important. A short quiz will follow.
3. State Functions in Thermochemistry
This lesson defines state functions and explains why state functions are so useful in thermochemistry and thermodynamics. You'll also see a few examples of common state functions.
4. Enthalpy: Energy Transfer in Physical and Chemical Processes
This video explores the relationship between chemistry and energy. We learn the general properties of energy and the concepts of temperature and heat. We will learn about energy flow and consider the enthalpy change during chemical reactions.
5. Bond Energy: Definition & Equation
Chemical reactions involve the breaking and forming of chemical bonds. In this video lesson, we will learn about bond energy and how we can use it to measure the overall energy change of a chemical reaction.
6. Using Hess's Law to Calculate the Change in Enthalpy of a Reaction
Want to make sure you don't blow yourself up during a chemical reaction? This lesson will help you avoid this by teaching you Hess's Law. This is one way to calculate the heat transferred, or enthalpy change, of a chemical reaction.
7. Predicting the Entropy of Physical and Chemical Changes
Ever wonder why your bedroom always ends up a mess within hours of you tidying up? That is the magic of entropy. In this lesson, you'll learn why disorder is the natural state of matter and how we can predict entropy change in a physical or chemical reaction.
8. Free Energy: Predicting the Spontaneity of a Reaction
Ever heard the phrase 'pushing Jell-O uphill on a hot day'? This describes a hopeless task. In this lesson, we will predict hopeful and hopeless reactions. Or put scientifically, predicting spontaneous (hopeful) and non-spontaneous (hopeless) reactions.
9. Standard Enthalpy of Formation: Explanation & Calculations
In this video lesson, we learn about the standard enthalpies of formation of substances. We will also learn how we can use these values as one way to calculate the standard enthalpy change of a chemical reaction.
10. Calorimetry: Measuring Heat Transfer and Heat Capacity
This video lesson explains the technique of calorimetry used to measure heat transfer in chemical reactions. You will see how different materials have different specific heat capacities. You will learn how to carry out heat calculations using a simple equation.
11. The Relationship Between Enthalpy (H), Free Energy (G) and Entropy (S)
In this video lesson, we'll study free energy (G) and its relationship to enthalpy, entropy and temperature. You'll also learn why free energy (G) is the single most useful criterion for predicting the spontaneity and direction of a chemical reaction.
12. Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
Explore a chemical reaction at the molecular level. Learn about exothermic and endothermic reactions, what they look like and what happens when they occur. Understand enthalpy and how you can use it to predict whether a reaction will be exothermic or endothermic.
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Other chapters within the ORELA Chemistry: Practice & Study Guide course
- ORELA Chemistry: Scientific Research & Equipment
- ORELA Chemistry: Interdisciplinary Relationships in Science
- ORELA Chemistry: Properties of Matter
- ORELA Chemistry: Atomic Structure
- ORELA Chemistry: Liquids & Solids
- ORELA Chemistry: Gases
- ORELA Chemistry: Chemical Bonding
- ORELA Chemistry: Inorganic & Organic Compounds
- ORELA Chemistry: Chemical Reactions
- ORELA Chemistry: Equilibrium
- ORELA Chemistry: Acids & Bases
- ORELA Chemistry: Redox Reactions & Electrochemistry
- ORELA Chemistry: Stoichiometry & Chemical Equations
- ORELA Chemistry: Solutions in Chemistry
- ORELA Chemistry Flashcards