About This Chapter
ORELA General Science: Reproduction & Development - Chapter Summary
If you need to brush up on reproduction and development as part of your preparations for the ORELA General Science exam, check out our video lessons in this chapter. This chapter will help you review animal reproduction, embryo implantation, and the process of tracking cell development using fate mapping. Additionally, you will encounter the following topics:
- Spermatogenesis & oogenesis
- The morula and blastula stages of embryogenesis
- Formation, structure and function of the placenta
- Gastrulation and the 3 germ layers of the developing human
- The role of Spemann's Organizer in controlling cell fate
- Cell signaling and inhibitors in differentiation and development
If you feel like you need to brush up on these topics, we're here to help. Let's work together so you can prove you deserve licensure to teach science in Oregon! The videos are brief but thorough and our instructors enjoy making them as fun as possible. Each is followed by a short, multiple-choice quiz so you can gain confidence in your preparation. Any questions you miss can be reviewed by going back through the relevant section in the videos.
Objectives for the ORELA General Science: Reproduction & Development chapter
The approximately 150 multiple-choice questions of the ORELA General Science test are subdivided into four main sections. It will be in the Life Science section, accounting for about 25% of the test, where you're most likely to find questions about reproduction and development.
Generally, this section of the test seeks to assess your understanding of cellular characteristics and processes in plants, animals and humans, including mitosis and meiosis. This section will also test your understanding of characteristics and classifications of organisms, as well as functions of specialized structures in different classifications of organisms. Reproduction and development are important parts of classification and specialization. Specifically, the test will assess your knowledge of human body systems, including reproductive, in terms of structure and function. As you can tell, we've correlated our lesson objectives with the test objectives.
1. Overview of Animal Reproduction and Development
At this stage in life, you likely know where babies come from. However, did you know that some animals can make clones of themselves and reproduce sexually too? In this lesson, you'll learn more about sexual reproduction and early vertebrate development.
2. Spermatogenesis: How the Male Reproductive System Produces Sperm
In this lesson, you'll learn the series of steps necessary to produce a fully functional sperm cell. You'll also look at the structure of a sperm cell and see how it's equipped to venture forth into new territory.
3. Oogenesis: How the Female Reproductive System Produces Eggs
Did you know that a human female already has all of the oocytes that she will make in her entire life before she is even born? In this lesson, you'll learn how the human body produces an ovum through the process of oogenesis. You'll also learn how polar bodies help to ensure that female gametes are of high quality even though they are not produced in high quantities.
4. Early Embryonic Development: The Morula and Blastula
This lesson on the early stages of mammalian development covers the processes following fertilization, such as cleavage, the morula formation and blastula formation. Watch to learn what the inner cell mass, trophoblast cells and blastocyst are, as well as their functions within embryonic development.
5. Embryo Implantation and Placenta Formation
This lesson will cover the journey the mammalian embryo first makes after it has been fertilized. Learn how maternal blood moves through the embryo, and how the placenta is formed.
6. The Placenta and the Fetus: Structure and Function
Have you ever wondered how a baby eats before it's born or if babies go to the bathroom while still inside their mother? In this lesson, you will learn about the placenta and how it works to ensure a fetus stays well-nourished and healthy before birth.
7. Amniotic Fluid, The Amnion, and the Yolk Sac
From a chick developing inside an egg to a human baby growing in its mother's womb, all developing vertebrates rely on a support system to protect them, feed them, supply them with oxygen, remove wastes, and do much, much more to ensure that the embryo grows and develops into a fully functional organism. In this lesson, you'll learn about the different parts of that support system and some of the things that they do.
8. Gastrulation and the 3 Germ Layers (Ectoderm, Endoderm & Mesoderm)
Gastrulation is a key process in embryonic development - it's how a simple ball of cells begins to grow into a fully functioning being! Watch this lesson to learn about a key process in the development of almost all multicellular organisms.
9. Spemann's Organizer: Controller of Cell Fate
Have you ever wondered how different parts of a developing embryo know what kind of tissue to become? What prevents two heads from developing on the same embryo, or for that matter, what ensures that a head develops at all? A small group of cells called Spemann's organizer determines the fates of the cells around them.
10. Concentration Gradients, Signaling Molecules & Inhibitors in Development
The discovery and characterization of Spemann's organizer was a significant achievement in the field of developmental biology, but this small piece of the dorsal lip is only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to coordinating the differentiation of all of the various tissue types in a growing embryo. In this lesson, you'll learn about concentration gradients and how they can be used to create various combinations of signaling molecules in different parts of the embryo.
11. How Signaling Molecules Control Differentiation
From signaling molecules to transcription factors and gene expression, in this lesson you'll learn what it takes for a cell to differentiate. You'll also learn some of the ways a cell can make sense of different combinations of signaling molecules and how these combinations can be used to guide a cell through the process of differentiation.
12. How Fate Mapping Is Used to Track Cell Development
Over the years, scientists have developed several methods to label and track groups of cells as they develop. These types of experiments are called fate mapping studies. In this lesson, you'll learn the basics of fate mapping and see how technology has allowed scientists to improve fate mapping techniques.
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Other chapters within the ORELA General Science: Practice & Study Guide course
- ORELA General Science: History & Nature of Science
- ORELA General Science: Scientific Inquiry
- ORELA General Science: Scientific Laws & Theories
- ORELA General Science: Scientific Processes
- ORELA General Science: Laboratory Equipment & Procedures
- ORELA General Science: Organization of Matter
- ORELA General Science: Basic Atomic Structure
- ORELA General Science: Energy & Matter
- ORELA General Science: States of Matter & Phase Changes
- ORELA General Science: Simple Compounds & Chemical Formulas
- ORELA General Science: Basics of Chemical Reactions
- ORELA General Science: Types of Chemical Reactions
- ORELA General Science: Equilibrium & Common Chemical Reactions
- ORELA General Science: The Mole Concept
- ORELA General Science: The Periodic Table
- ORELA General Science: Acids & Bases
- ORELA General Science: Kinetics
- ORELA General Science: Solutions & Solubility Factors
- ORELA General Science: Thermodynamics
- ORELA General Science: Phase Transitions
- ORELA General Science: Newton's Laws & Gravity
- ORELA General Science: Physics of Motion
- ORELA General Science: Analyzing Motion
- ORELA General Science: Analyzing Forces
- ORELA General Science: Electrical Concepts
- ORELA General Science: Electromagnetic Spectrum
- ORELA General Science: Waves, Optics & Sound
- ORELA General Science: Cell Structure & Function
- ORELA General Science: Cell Reproduction & Division
- ORELA General Science: Biochemistry of Life
- ORELA General Science: Introduction to Organic Chemistry
- ORELA General Science: Organism Characteristics
- ORELA General Science: Plant Structures & Functions
- ORELA General Science: The Circulatory System
- ORELA General Science: The Nervous System
- ORELA General Science: The Immune & Endocrine Systems
- ORELA General Science: The Circulatory, Respiratory, Digestive, Excretory, and Musculoskeleton
- ORELA General Science: Basic Genetics
- ORELA General Science: DNA Transcription & Translation
- ORELA General Science: Genetic Engineering
- ORELA General Science: Evolution
- ORELA General Science: History of Life
- ORELA General Science: Ecosystems
- ORELA General Science: Population Dynamics & Community Ecology
- ORELA General Science: Earth Materials
- ORELA General Science: Rocks & Minerals
- ORELA General Science: Historical Geology
- ORELA General Science: Erosion, Weathering & Sedimentation
- ORELA General Science: Earth's Structure & Processes
- ORELA General Science: Plate Tectonics
- ORELA General Science: The Water Cycle
- ORELA General Science: Oceans
- ORELA General Science: Glaciers
- ORELA General Science: Other Bodies of Water
- ORELA General Science: Earth's Atmosphere
- ORELA General Science: Basic Weather Concepts
- ORELA General Science: The Solar System
- ORELA General Science: Earth, Moon & Sun
- ORELA General Science: Formations & Phases of the Moon
- ORELA General Science: The Universe
- ORELA General Science: Orbits of Celestial Bodies
- ORELA General Science Flashcards