About This Chapter
ORELA General Science: Scientific Processes - Chapter Summary
This chapter prepares you for scientific measures and data representation questions on the ORELA General Science exam. If you're not feeling quite prepared for questions about scientific processes or if you just want to boost your confidence in your readiness, the lessons in this chapter can help you with either. The lessons review topics such as the following:
- A review of the metric system and laboratory measurements
- Conversion of units and dimensions
- Use of scientific figures and notation
- Textual vs non-textual scientific presentations
- Reading and interpreting scientific graphs, charts and tables
- Using measurements of central tendency such as mean, median and mode
- Calculating standard deviation
- Evaluating data in terms of precision, accuracy and error
Our subject matter experts have created these short video lessons and made them as enjoyable and brief as possible while still being thorough and effective. Each lesson has a corresponding quiz for you to take to ensure your comprehension and retention of the material. We want you to feel as prepared as possible for the test!
ORELA General Science: Scientific Processes - Chapter Objectives
The ORELA General Science exam is used by the state of Oregon to assess potential science teachers for licensing purposes and consists of 150 questions subdivided into 4 sections. On the Nature of Science section, which accounts for about 19% of the test, you are likely to find questions about the scientific process.
The exam seeks to confirm you understand principles as well as procedures relevant to scientific inquiry. You may find questions evaluating your knowledge of methods, criteria and mathematical principles used for collecting, organizing, analyzing and presenting scientific data as well as about materials and equipment used in the process. Use the short quizzes in this chapter to practice answering similar questions to those you'll find on the exam.
1. The Metric System: Units and Conversion
Just like you and your friend communicate using the same language, scientists all over the world need to use the same language when reporting the measurements they make. This language is called the metric system. In this lesson we will cover the metric units for length, mass, volume, density and temperature, and also discuss how to convert among them.
2. Understanding Laboratory Measurements: Units & Types
There are many different units that can be used for measurements. This may not only lead to incorrect data measurements, but also to confusion about which units are most appropriate. Therefore, a standard set of units is used for each type of measurement in the biology lab.
3. What Is a Meniscus? - Definition, Uses & Lab Examples
Liquids can be tricky to measure because surface tension causes them to do interesting things like forming a meniscus. In this video lesson you'll learn what a meniscus is, why it forms, and how to correctly read the volume of a liquid using the meniscus at the surface.
4. Unit Conversion and Dimensional Analysis
How is solving a chemistry problem like playing dominoes? Watch this lesson to find out how you can use your domino skills to solve almost any chemistry problem.
5. Significant Figures and Scientific Notation
Are 7.5 grams and 7.50 grams the same? How do scientists represent very large and very small quantities? Find out the answers to these questions in this video.
6. Understanding Textual & Non-Textual Scientific Presentations
In order to understand science, you have to know science. This knowledge includes understanding the various ways that scientific information may be presented as well as how to critically analyze that information.
7. How to Read Scientific Graphs & Charts
How do scientists summarize their findings with visual aids? In this lesson, explore the different types of tables, charts and graphs that scientists use. Learn to read these effectively as a preview to your science studies.
8. Interpreting Graphs and Charts of Scientific Data: Practice Problems
Do charts and graphs make problem-solving difficult? Complex problems with visual representations can drain your brain during a test. In this lesson, learn three simple rules for solving problems with charts and graphs. We'll try them out as we walk through two sample problems.
9. Interpreting Tables of Scientific Data: Practice Problems
Complex table problems getting you down? Multi-question, situational problems don't have to be a drag on your testing performance. Learn how to apply three simple rules as we walk through two table problems together.
10. Mean, Median & Mode: Measures of Central Tendency
By describing the data using central tendency, a researcher and reader can understand what the typical score looks like. In this lesson, we will explore in more detail these measures of central tendency and how they relate to samples and populations.
11. Calculating the Standard Deviation
In this lesson, we will examine the meaning and process of calculating the standard deviation of a data set. Standard deviation can help to determine if the data set is a normal distribution.
12. Evaluating Data: Precision, Accuracy & Error
The data you present as a scientist need to be as accurate, precise and error-free as possible. In this lesson, we'll discuss what each of these terms means, as well as how error is introduced into measurements and other data collection.
13. Statistical Analysis: Using Data to Find Trends and Examine Relationships
Many different organizations use statistical analysis to describe and analyze data and to predict future trends. Learn about the different types of statistics in this video lesson.
14. The Relationship Between Variables: Correlation Coefficient & Scatterplots
The focus of this lesson is on how both correlation coefficients and scatterplots convey the same message. Specifically, this lesson will explore how these two can reveal the same information but in different ways.
15. Make Estimates and Predictions from Categorical Data
Categorical data can be estimated but not predicted. Learn why in this video lesson along with how to read and gather information from a bar graph of categorical data.
16. Making Estimates and Predictions using Quantitative Data
Watch this video lesson to learn how you can read a scatter plot to learn more about a particular situation. Also learn how you can make estimates within the range of data you have and predict what may happen outside the range of data.
17. Drawing Conclusions Based on Internal Validity
When a researcher gets the results of their study back, how do they know that the independent variable caused the results? In this lesson, we'll look at how internal validity shapes the way researchers draw conclusions about their research.
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Other chapters within the ORELA General Science: Practice & Study Guide course
- ORELA General Science: History & Nature of Science
- ORELA General Science: Scientific Inquiry
- ORELA General Science: Scientific Laws & Theories
- ORELA General Science: Laboratory Equipment & Procedures
- ORELA General Science: Organization of Matter
- ORELA General Science: Basic Atomic Structure
- ORELA General Science: Energy & Matter
- ORELA General Science: States of Matter & Phase Changes
- ORELA General Science: Simple Compounds & Chemical Formulas
- ORELA General Science: Basics of Chemical Reactions
- ORELA General Science: Types of Chemical Reactions
- ORELA General Science: Equilibrium & Common Chemical Reactions
- ORELA General Science: The Mole Concept
- ORELA General Science: The Periodic Table
- ORELA General Science: Acids & Bases
- ORELA General Science: Kinetics
- ORELA General Science: Solutions & Solubility Factors
- ORELA General Science: Thermodynamics
- ORELA General Science: Phase Transitions
- ORELA General Science: Newton's Laws & Gravity
- ORELA General Science: Physics of Motion
- ORELA General Science: Analyzing Motion
- ORELA General Science: Analyzing Forces
- ORELA General Science: Electrical Concepts
- ORELA General Science: Electromagnetic Spectrum
- ORELA General Science: Waves, Optics & Sound
- ORELA General Science: Cell Structure & Function
- ORELA General Science: Cell Reproduction & Division
- ORELA General Science: Biochemistry of Life
- ORELA General Science: Introduction to Organic Chemistry
- ORELA General Science: Organism Characteristics
- ORELA General Science: Plant Structures & Functions
- ORELA General Science: The Circulatory System
- ORELA General Science: The Nervous System
- ORELA General Science: The Immune & Endocrine Systems
- ORELA General Science: The Circulatory, Respiratory, Digestive, Excretory, and Musculoskeleton
- ORELA General Science: Reproduction & Development
- ORELA General Science: Basic Genetics
- ORELA General Science: DNA Transcription & Translation
- ORELA General Science: Genetic Engineering
- ORELA General Science: Evolution
- ORELA General Science: History of Life
- ORELA General Science: Ecosystems
- ORELA General Science: Population Dynamics & Community Ecology
- ORELA General Science: Earth Materials
- ORELA General Science: Rocks & Minerals
- ORELA General Science: Historical Geology
- ORELA General Science: Erosion, Weathering & Sedimentation
- ORELA General Science: Earth's Structure & Processes
- ORELA General Science: Plate Tectonics
- ORELA General Science: The Water Cycle
- ORELA General Science: Oceans
- ORELA General Science: Glaciers
- ORELA General Science: Other Bodies of Water
- ORELA General Science: Earth's Atmosphere
- ORELA General Science: Basic Weather Concepts
- ORELA General Science: The Solar System
- ORELA General Science: Earth, Moon & Sun
- ORELA General Science: Formations & Phases of the Moon
- ORELA General Science: The Universe
- ORELA General Science: Orbits of Celestial Bodies