About This Chapter
Organic Chemistry Basics - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds, or the chemical substances that form the basis of life forms and organisms. In this chapter, instructor Meg Desko will provide you with an introduction to carbon-based or organic molecules, including carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. In particular, you'll learn about the structure and purpose of different functional groups, such as those found in ammonia, sugars or even your own body. When you complete this chapter, you have an understanding of the following:
- How functional groups can be used to identify biological molecules
- Natural and man-made polymers, such as plastic
- The carbohydrates and sugars found in everyday foods
- Lipids and dietary fats
- Proteins and peptide bonds
- The different types of reactions that take place between organic compounds
|Introduction to Organic Molecules I: Functional Groups||Define and discuss alcohols, aldehydes, amines, esters, ethers, halides, ketones and organic acids.|
|Introduction to Organic Molecules II: Monomers and Polymers||Identify and explain the basis of complex molecules and repeating units of molecules.|
|Structure and Function of Carbohydrates||Describe the organizational arrangement and use of organic compounds.|
|Structure and Function of Lipids||Describe the organizational arrangement and use of organic compounds associated with fatty acids.|
|Proteins I: Structure and Function||Discuss the formation and purpose of proteins.|
|Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds||Describe the different types of peptides and how they are formed.|
|Proteins III: Structures and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids||Explain how amino acids form polypeptide chains in proteins.|
|Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure||Discuss the higher order of protein structures.|
|Organic Reactions: Addition, Substitution, Polymerization, Cracking, Oxidation, Esterification and Fermentation||Define and discuss the different chemical reactions of organic compounds.|
1. Organic Chemistry & the Study of Carbon Compound Life Forms
Organic chemistry is the study of carbon-containing compounds. This lesson will explore why carbon is such an important element, and how organic chemistry is related to your life.
2. Introduction to Organic Molecules I: Functional Groups
Organic molecules contain carbon and other atoms often found together and behaving similarly are called functional groups. Learn about carbon and atoms in functional groups in this introduction to organic molecules.
3. Introduction to Organic Molecules II: Monomers and Polymers
Polymers can be defined as long-chain molecules composed of small monomers. Dig deeper into the relationship between monomers and polymers in this introduction to organic molecules.
4. Structure and Function of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and contain various functional groups. Learn about the structure and function of different carbohydrates like sugars, fiber, and starches, and the function of carbs in humans.
5. Structure and Function of Lipids
Lipids, commonly known as fats and steroids, are polar molecules that are essential to life. Explore the different structures and types of lipids--such as fats, oils and hormones--and how structure determines the type and function.
6. Proteins I: Structure and Function
Proteins can be defined as molecules composed of amino acids and peptide bonds. Learn about the structure and function of proteins using keratin as an example.
7. Proteins III: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids
Take a journey with the amino acid glycine as it searches for its peptide-turning amino acid. Learn about the 20 amino acids and their categorizations of polar negative, positive, neutral, hydrophobic non-polar, and special.
8. Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds
Discover how amino acids, polymerization, and peptide bonds work in the formation of proteins. The topics covered are how peptides are formed, how they are written, and the different types of peptides.
9. Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure
Proteins can be classified according to their structure as either primary, secondary, tertiary, or quaternary. Explore the classifications of proteins by structure, and discover how structures differ from one another.
10. Organic Chemical Reactions: Addition, Substitution, Polymerization & Cracking
Organic molecules can combine, swap atoms, break apart and even make more of themselves. In this lesson, we will explore several organic reactions with examples.
11. Organic Chemical Reactions: Redox, Esterification & Fermentation
There are many different types of reactions that occur in organic chemistry. This lesson will highlight three reactions, explaining which organic molecules are the reactants and which are the products, as well as what occurs during the reaction.
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Other chapters within the Chemistry: High School course
- Introduction to Chemistry
- Measurement and Problem Solving
- Experimental Laboratory Chemistry
- What Is Matter?
- Understanding Atomic Structure
- The Periodic Table of Elements
- The Representative Elements of the Periodic Table
- Nuclear Chemistry
- Bonding for High School Chemistry
- Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids
- Gases in Chemistry
- Solutions in Chemistry
- Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations
- Acids, Bases and Reactions
- Chemistry Kinetics
- Thermodynamics in Chemistry