About This Chapter
Organic Chemistry Basics - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds, or the chemical substances that form the basis of life forms and organisms. In this chapter, instructor Meg Desko will provide you with an introduction to carbon-based or organic molecules, including carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. In particular, you'll learn about the structure and purpose of different functional groups, such as those found in ammonia, sugars or even your own body. When you complete this chapter, you have an understanding of the following:
- How functional groups can be used to identify biological molecules
- Natural and man-made polymers, such as plastic
- The carbohydrates and sugars found in everyday foods
- Lipids and dietary fats
- Proteins and peptide bonds
- The different types of reactions that take place between organic compounds
|Introduction to Organic Molecules I: Functional Groups||Define and discuss alcohols, aldehydes, amines, esters, ethers, halides, ketones and organic acids.|
|Introduction to Organic Molecules II: Monomers and Polymers||Identify and explain the basis of complex molecules and repeating units of molecules.|
|Structure and Function of Carbohydrates||Describe the organizational arrangement and use of organic compounds.|
|Structure and Function of Lipids||Describe the organizational arrangement and use of organic compounds associated with fatty acids.|
|Proteins I: Structure and Function||Discuss the formation and purpose of proteins.|
|Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds||Describe the different types of peptides and how they are formed.|
|Proteins III: Structures and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids||Explain how amino acids form polypeptide chains in proteins.|
|Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure||Discuss the higher order of protein structures.|
|Organic Reactions: Addition, Substitution, Polymerization, Cracking, Oxidation, Esterification and Fermentation||Define and discuss the different chemical reactions of organic compounds.|
1. Organic Chemistry & the Study of Carbon Compound Life Forms
Organic chemistry is the study of carbon-containing compounds. This lesson will explore why carbon is such an important element, and how organic chemistry is related to your life.
2. Introduction to Organic Molecules I: Functional Groups
If you've ever wondered what gives vinegar that sour flavor, you may not realize that you have contemplated functional groups. View this lesson for an introduction to organic chemistry, functional groups and how they are part of your daily life.
3. Introduction to Organic Molecules II: Monomers and Polymers
From everyday man-made items like milk jugs and styrofoam to natural proteins and plant materials, the world is full of polymers! Check out this lesson to learn how polymers are constructed on a molecular level.
4. Structure and Function of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are found in many foods that we eat and may be found as sugars, starches, or fiber. Learn more about these three distinct types of carbohydrates, and how they are distinguished through their chemical structures in this lesson.
5. Structure and Function of Lipids
Molecules called lipids have long hydrocarbon chains that determine the way they act. They can be fats, oils, or hormones, and even exist in our cell membranes. Learn more about the chemical structure and biological function of various lipids in this lesson.
6. Proteins I: Structure and Function
We need our proteins, not just as a major food group but for the many useful roles that they play in our bodies. In our introductory lesson to proteins, you'll learn about the many functions we rely on them to perform.
7. Proteins III: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids
How do amino acids form the intricate polypeptide chains found in proteins? It's a matter of chemistry. Join glycine, a special amino acid, as she sizes up the other amino acids.
8. Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds
In this lesson, we'll take a deeper look at amino acids. You'll learn what makes a peptide, and what separates a protein from other kinds of amino acid bonds.
9. Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure
How is progressing through higher order protein structures like crafting an essay? In this lesson, you'll explore everything from quaternary structures to denaturation as we show how the different structures are intertwined.
10. Organic Chemical Reactions: Addition, Substitution, Polymerization & Cracking
Organic molecules can combine, swap atoms, break apart and even make more of themselves. In this lesson, we will explore several organic reactions with examples.
11. Organic Chemical Reactions: Redox, Esterification & Fermentation
There are many different types of reactions that occur in organic chemistry. This lesson will highlight three reactions, explaining which organic molecules are the reactants and which are the products, as well as what occurs during the reaction.
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Other chapters within the Chemistry: High School course
- Introduction to Chemistry
- Measurement and Problem Solving
- Experimental Laboratory Chemistry
- What Is Matter?
- Understanding Atomic Structure
- The Periodic Table of Elements
- The Representative Elements of the Periodic Table
- Nuclear Chemistry
- Bonding for High School Chemistry
- Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids
- Gases in Chemistry
- Solutions in Chemistry
- Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations
- Acids, Bases and Reactions
- Chemistry Kinetics
- Thermodynamics in Chemistry
- Teaching Resources for High School Chemistry