About This Chapter
Organic Compounds - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Begin to understand the chemistry behind life in this chapter on organic compounds. Learn about organic molecules, move onto the structure of carbohydrates and proteins and finally explore the key to individuality: DNA. Watch the videos then take the quizzes to see what you have learned. And remember, if you have questions along the way, just ask our subject experts for help! After finishing this chapter, you will be able to:
- Detail the major elements in a biological molecule
- Identify functional groups, monomers and polymers
- Describe the structure and function of lipids, steroids and proteins
- Outline the structure and components of DNA
- Differentiate between RNA, DNA and protein
- Explain how ATP fuels biological life
|Major Elements in Biological Molecules: Proteins, Nucleic Acids, Carbohydrates and Lipids||Discover how basic elements join to create the building blocks of biological life.|
|Introduction to Organic Molecules I: Functional Groups||Explore the definition of organic chemistry and learn about five functional groups.|
|Introduction to Organic Molecules II: Monomers and Polymers||Learn about the structure and formation of natural and man-made polymers like cellulose and kevlar.|
|Structure and Function of Carbohydrates||Explore the three types of carbohydrates and how they are identified by their chemical structures.|
|Structure and Function of Lipids||Identify the structure and function of lipids including saturated, unsaturated and trans fats.|
|Steroids: Structure and Function||Understand this type of lipid and identify its structures and functions.|
|Proteins I: Structure and Function||Learn how basic proteins are formed and the functions they perform.|
|Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds||Take a deeper look at amino acids and how peptides are formed.|
|Proteins III: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids||Identify the categories of amino acids and their chemical structures.|
|Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure||Study the four structures of proteins and the process of denaturation.|
|DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids and Phosphodiester Bonds||Discover what nucleotides look like and their relationship to DNA.|
|DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine and Complementary Base Pairing||Understand the nitrogenous bases and how they pair.|
|DNA: Double Helix Structure and Hereditary Molecule||Explore the four letter structures of DNA and how the double helix was discovered because of them.|
|Differences Between RNA and DNA and Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA and rRNA)||Understand the concept of central dogma and the relationship between DNA and RNA.|
|ATP: Definition and Molecules||Explain how ATP fuels the biological cell and provides the energy necessary for life.|
1. Major Elements in Biological Molecules: Proteins, Nucleic Acids, Carbohydrates & Lipids
Bacterial cells have complex macromolecules built from simple molecules. In this lesson, we will look at the major elements in the building blocks of proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids.
2. Introduction to Organic Molecules I: Functional Groups
If you've ever wondered what gives vinegar that sour flavor, you may not realize that you have contemplated functional groups. View this lesson for an introduction to organic chemistry, functional groups and how they are part of your daily life.
3. Introduction to Organic Molecules II: Monomers and Polymers
From everyday man-made items like milk jugs and styrofoam to natural proteins and plant materials, the world is full of polymers! Check out this lesson to learn how polymers are constructed on a molecular level.
4. Structure and Function of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are found in many foods that we eat and may be found as sugars, starches, or fiber. Learn more about these three distinct types of carbohydrates, and how they are distinguished through their chemical structures in this lesson.
5. Structure and Function of Lipids
Molecules called lipids have long hydrocarbon chains that determine the way they act. They can be fats, oils, or hormones, and even exist in our cell membranes. Learn more about the chemical structure and biological function of various lipids in this lesson.
6. Steroids: Structure & Function
Steroids are a type of lipid that contains four rings of carbon atoms. Steroids can act as hormones in the body. In this lesson, you will learn about the different structures and functions of steroids, including the important role of a steroid called cholesterol.
7. Proteins I: Structure and Function
We need our proteins, not just as a major food group but for the many useful roles that they play in our bodies. In our introductory lesson to proteins, you'll learn about the many functions we rely on them to perform.
8. Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds
In this lesson, we'll take a deeper look at amino acids. You'll learn what makes a peptide, and what separates a protein from other kinds of amino acid bonds.
9. Proteins III: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids
How do amino acids form the intricate polypeptide chains found in proteins? It's a matter of chemistry. Join glycine, a special amino acid, as she sizes up the other amino acids.
10. Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure
How is progressing through higher order protein structures like crafting an essay? In this lesson, you'll explore everything from quaternary structures to denaturation as we show how the different structures are intertwined.
11. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds
In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.
12. DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing
Learn the language of nucleotides as we look at the nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. Armed with this knowledge, you'll also see why DNA strands must run in opposite directions.
13. DNA: Discovery, Facts, Structure & Function in Heredity
This lesson will help you to navigate the twists and turns of DNA's structure. We'll also clue you in on the amazing discoveries that put this nucleic acid in the limelight as the molecule of heredity.
14. Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)
In this lesson, you'll explore RNA structure and learn the central dogma of molecular biology. Along the way, you'll meet the three types of RNA and see how the cell uses them most effectively.
15. ATP: Definition & Molecules
ATP is the molecule that fuels life. It is where our cells get the energy needed to perform their tasks. This lesson will define ATP, explain its structure, and briefly outline how it works.
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Other chapters within the UExcel Anatomy and Physiology I: Study Guide & Test Prep course
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