About This Chapter
Overview of Aldehydes & Ketones - Chapter Summary
In this comprehensive organic chemistry chapter, you'll gain a thorough understanding of ketones and aldehydes. Broken into short, engaging and easy-to-understand lessons, this chapter breaks down the fundamentals of the carbonyl group, IUPAC nomenclature, ketone synthesis, nucleophilic addition reactions and a variety of reduction and reaction mechanisms. To reinforce your understanding of these chemistry terms, formulas, structures and concepts, simply take the chapter's self-assessment quizzes. You can also submit questions to our subject-matter experts if you need clarification on a lesson topic. When you're finished with the chapter, you should be able to:
- Recognize the carbonyl group's properties
- Assess the structures and formulas of aldehydes, formaldehydes, ketones and acetones
- Use IUPAC nomenclature to name ketones and aldehydes
- Evaluate aldehyde and ketone synthesis and reaction mechanisms
- Describe the nucleophilic addition reactions of ketones and aldehydes
- Evaluate aldol addition, Cannizzaro reaction and Wolff-Kishner reduction mechanisms
- Analyze Grignard reactions with aldehyde, ketones and alcohol
- Define the Wittig reaction and alkene synthesis
1. Carbonyl Group: Properties & Overview
Carbonyl has many friends in organic chemistry, including aldehyde and ketone. Continue reading to learn about the carbonyl group and find out what makes it so popular.
2. Aldehyde: Definition, Reactions, Formula & Structure
There are numerous organic functional groups. In this lesson, we will learn about the volatile, and often sweet-smelling, aldehyde. Read on to learn more about aldehyde, including its formula and structure, as well as some common reactions that it can undergo.
3. What is Formaldehyde? - Definition, Uses & Structures
Do you remember that liquid in a jar that you used in biology class to preserve the frog you dissected? That liquid contains a substance known as formaldehyde. In this lesson, we will learn more about formaldehyde, its structure and its other uses.
4. What is Ketone? - Definition, Structure, Formation & Formula
This lesson will introduce you to the functional group ketone, explaining its structure and use in the environment, how it is synthesized and the molecular formula.
5. What is Acetone? - Structure, Uses & Formula
Acetone is a common solvent that is present in nail polish remover, and it can be identified due to its distinctive smell. Aside from its use in nail polish remover, acetone has many other uses. In this lesson, we will discuss acetone's formula, uses, and structure.
6. Naming Aldehydes & Ketones Using IUPAC Nomenclature
This lesson will help you understand the IUPAC naming rules for aldehydes and ketones. We'll review what these molecules are, then look at naming conventions and go over some examples.
7. Aldehyde & Ketone Synthesis by Oxidation of Alcohols
This lesson will explore the oxidation of alcohols to produce aldehydes and ketones. We'll explain what type of alcohols form which molecules and the applications of these reactions.
8. Aldehydes & Ketones: Reaction Mechanisms
In this lesson we will look at reactions that aldehydes and ketones under-go. These reaction include oxidation into carboxylic acids, reduction into alcohols, and forming cyanohydrin.
9. Nucleophilic Addition Reactions of Aldehydes & Ketones
In this lesson, we'll examine the nucleophilic addition reactions of aldehydes and ketones, including addition of water and alcohols. First, we'll review what aldehydes and ketones are, as well as the basics of nucleophilic addition reactions.
10. Aldol Addition: Mechanism & Reaction
The goal of this lesson will be to gain an understanding of a reaction in organic chemistry known as the aldol addition by carefully studying the general reaction form and the reaction mechanism.
11. Grignard Reaction with Alcohol, Ketone & Aldehyde
In this lesson, we'll learn about the Grignard reaction. We'll see how the reaction occurs with ketones and aldehydes, as well as how water and alcohols prevent this reaction from occurring.
12. Cannizzaro Reaction: Mechanism & Examples
The Cannizzaro reaction is a reaction between two aldehydes forming a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. We will learn how this reaction occurs and the mechanism by which it occurs.
13. Wolff-Kishner Reduction: Mechanism, Components & Process
The lesson discusses the Wolff-Kishner reduction process, which is basically a reduction process that converts a carbonyl functional group to a saturated hydrocarbon. It also talks about the mechanism of the reduction process, including two modifications.
14. The Wittig Reaction & Alkene Synthesis: Definition & Examples
This lesson will explore the process and mechanism of the Wittig reaction. We'll learn how this reaction works and its application as a nucleophilic addition reaction.
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