About This Chapter
Overview of Cell Structure & Function - Chapter Summary
Use the lessons in this chapter for a comprehensive review of cell structure and functionality. Our instructors will also help you brush up on the methods of cell transport. After completing the lessons, you will have studied:
- Structure and function of a cell
- Hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties of the phospholipid bilayer
- The cell membrane's fluid mosaic model
- Passive and active transport in cells
- Endocytosis and exocytosis
- Structure of the nucleus
- Ribosomes, mitochondria, chloroplast, and cytoskeleton
- The endomembrane system
- Comparison of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
To keep the learning process efficient, effective and inviting, our instructors have created engaging videos to help illustrate the material. As you work your way through the chapter, take self-assessment quizzes to apply what you've learned. To review a particular section of a lesson, utilize the timeline provided below the video. Track your progress through the chapter on your Dashboard.
1. The Cell: Structure & Function
The cell is a small, but complex structure. Take a look inside the outer plasma membrane of a cell and discover the functions of some common cellular components, including the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria, in this lesson.
2. How a Phospholipid Bilayer Is Both Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic
In this lesson, we will learn what gives phospholipids a dual personality. How can this molecule be both hydrophobic and hydrophilic, and why is this important to a cell?
3. The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Cell Membrane
In this lesson, we will discuss the components of the cell membrane and why the fluid mosaic model paints the best picture of its structure. We'll learn about the roles of the phospholipid bilayer, cholesterol, proteins and carbohydrates.
4. Passive Transport in Cells: Simple and Facilitated Diffusion & Osmosis
A cell membrane is selectively permeable - not permeable to everything. In this lesson, we'll talk about methods of passive transport along a concentration gradient, including simple and facilitated diffusion and osmosis.
5. Active Transport in Cells: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, we'll learn how substances are transported across the cell membrane against the concentration gradient. This might seem like an uphill battle for the cell, but all it takes is a little chemical energy and a few integral membrane proteins to kick off some active transport!
6. Endocytosis and Exocytosis Across the Cell Membrane
In this lesson, we'll discover how some cells can eat, drink, and digest their dinner through the process of endocytosis and a structure called the lysosome. In addition, we'll learn how a cell can throw out the leftovers across the cell membrane during exocytosis.
7. Structure of the Nucleus: Nucleolus, Nuclear Membrane, and Nuclear Pores
In this lesson, we'll discuss the organization and importance of the nucleus in your cells. This is the membrane-bound structure responsible for containing all the genetic material essential to making you who you are.
8. The Ribosome: Structure, Function and Location
The ribosome is the cellular structure responsible for decoding your DNA. In this lesson, we'll learn about ribosome structure, function and location - characteristics that make it a very good genetic translator.
9. The Endomembrane System: Functions & Components
In this lesson, we'll learn about the endomembrane system, which consists of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. This system is important in making, packaging, and shipping all sorts of goodies for the cell to use!
10. The Cytoskeleton: Microtubules and Microfilaments
In this lesson, we'll learn about the cytoskeleton of your cells. This network of microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments helps different types of cells maintain a unique set of characteristics, including shape and movement.
11. Mitochondria Structure: Cristae, Matrix and Inner & Outer Membrane
If you want to make it through the day, you're going to need some energy. In this lesson, we'll learn about the organelle that supplies this energy, the mitochondrion, and why this cell structure appreciates the time you took to eat breakfast this morning!
12. Chloroplast Structure: Chlorophyll, Stroma, Thylakoid, and Grana
In this lesson, we'll explore the parts of the chloroplast, such as the thylakoids and stroma, that make a chloroplast the perfect place for conducting photosynthesis in plant cells.
13. Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells: Similarities and Differences
In this lesson, we discuss the similarities and differences between the eukaryotic cells of your body and prokaryotic cells such as bacteria. Eukaryotes organize different functions within specialized membrane-bound compartments called organelles. These structures do not exist in prokaryotes.
14. Viruses: Bacteriophage Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles
Viruses are generally not only our enemy but also the enemy of many other organisms. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect specific bacteria. In this lesson, we'll discuss their basic structure and infection cycle.
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Other chapters within the NMTA Middle Grades General Science (204): Practice & Study Guide course
- Safety Procedures and Hazards in Scientific Research
- The History and Nature of Science
- Principles and Procedures of Scientific Inquiry
- Using Math in Science
- Introduction to Matter
- Organization of Matter
- Atomic Structure & Nuclear Chemistry
- Chemical Bonds & Reactions
- The Periodic Table
- Elements, Compounds & Mixtures
- Simple Compounds & Chemical Formulas
- Phase Changes for Liquids & Solids
- Rates of Reaction
- Work, Energy, & Power in Physics
- Electricity, Potential & Capacitance in Physics
- Newton's Laws & Gravity
- Understanding Fluids in Physics
- Waves, Sound, and Light
- Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis
- Mitosis & Meiosis
- Animal Reproduction and Development
- Male Reproductive System
- Female Reproductive System
- Physiology I: The Circulatory, Respiratory, Digestive, Excretory, and Musculoskeletal Systems
- Physiology II: The Nervous, Immune, and Endocrine Systems
- Plant Biology
- Plant Reproduction and Growth
- Plant & Fungi Structures & Functions
- Mendelian Genetics & Mechanisms of Heredity
- The Nucleotide Structure of DNA & RNA
- Processes & Steps of DNA Replication
- The Transcription and Translation Process
- Evolution: Theories and Principles
- Classification of Organisms
- The Origin and History of Life On Earth
- Understanding Ecosystems
- Earth's Formation & Plate Tectonics
- Minerals and Rocks
- Weathering and Erosion
- The Hydrosphere
- Coastal Features & Adaptation
- The Atmosphere
- Weather and Storms
- The Solar System and Universe
- NMTA Middle Grades General Science Flashcards