About This Chapter
Overview of Human Growth & Development - Chapter Summary
Our instructors have developed in-depth video lessons you can watch at your own pace to build a quality understanding of theories on human and growth development. Exploring this chapter helps you gain insight into Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Gottlieb's epigenetic psychobiological systems perspective and stages of psychosocial development described by Erikson. Upon completion, you will be ready to do the following:
- List and describe the principles of growth and development
- Discuss human development theory pioneers like Jung and Piaget
- Explain Freud's psychoanalytical theory focused on development, personality, instincts and motivation
- Define and share examples of Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory of development
- Describe how evolutionary theory can be applied to instinctual learning
Every lesson in this chapter is accessible as video or transcript, enabling you to study using the format that best suits your study preferences. As you explore the lessons, feel free to check your knowledge of main concepts by taking our multiple-choice quizzes and broader practice exam. Questions that arise during your study process can easily be submitted to our subject-matter experts via the dashboard. If you need to study while away from your computer, enjoy mobile access that lets you access our resources on your smartphone or tablet!
1. Principles of Growth and Development
The principles of growth and development describe how the process of growth takes place. In this lesson, discover the three universal principles: cephalocaudal, proximodistal, and orthogenetic along with how development occurs.
2. Human Growth and Development Theories
Developmental psychologists have formulated several human growth and development theories to explain various aspects of human growth. Learn about human growth and development theories (psychoanalytic, learning, cognitive development, and systems), the psychologists who pioneered each development theory, and the strengths and weaknesses of human development theories.
3. Pioneers in Human Development Theory: Freud, Piaget & Jung
Freud based his psychoanalytic theory of human development on satisfying biological instincts, whereas Piaget and Jung based their theories on higher functioning emotional and cognitive development. Learn about Freud, Piaget and Jung and their contributions as pioneers in human development theory.
4. Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory on Instincts, Motivation, Personality & Development
Psychologist Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory formed the basis for many current psychodynamic theories. Review Freud's theory, including his perspectives on instincts, motivation, personality, and development. Learn about Freud's ideas on the three levels of consciousness, id, superego, ego, and psychosexual development.
5. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Psychologist Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development focuses on how environmental interactions impact individuals' development of complex reasoning and knowledge. Learn about Piaget's theory, including its six basic assumptions, and understand assimilation, accommodation and equilibration. Explore ways to apply Piaget's theory in educational settings, including the classroom.
6. Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development: Theory & Examples
According to psychologist Erik Erickson, people go through eight stages of psychosocial development. Explore how these stages play a key role in forming a person's psychosocial identity and see examples of the different stages.
7. Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory of Development: Definition & Examples
Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory argues that personal development is affected by environmental factors. Learn the definition and explore examples of Bronfenbrenner's theory of development. Review the theory's levels, including microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem.
8. Evolutionary Theory's Applications to Learning
Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and its concept of natural selection can be used to understand how humans learn and develop. Explore evolutionary theory's applications to learning, and evolution's connections to development and instincts.
9. Gottlieb's Epigenetic Psychobiological Systems Perspective: Concepts & Definitions
Gilbert Gottlieb was an American psychologist who believed that both biological and environmental factors influence the development of an organism. Explore the definitions, associated terms, and concepts included in Gottlieb's epigenetic pyschobiological systems perspective and learn about his theory of probabilistic epigenesis.
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