About This Chapter
Overview of Psychology - Chapter Summary
The engaging lessons in this chapter provide an overview of psychology. You can study the five main specializations through which psychologists study behavior, complex processes of memory, and common theories of intelligence. You'll also review three main types of personality theories and George Herbert Mead's stages of play, game, and generalized other. After completing the chapter, you should be prepared to:
- List five approaches that have guided modern psychological research
- Detail how psychologists use the scientific method to research behaviors
- Recall approaches used to study the human mind
- Provide an overview of the major human development theories
- Explain how genes and the environment affect people
- Discuss Charles Cooley's theory of the Looking-Glass Self
- Give details about the brain's ability to automatically react to new stimuli
- Define operant conditioning
You can choose to study all of these lessons on psychology in sequential order or just focus on the topics you need to review. Each lesson comes with a short quiz to ascertain how much of the content you can recall. Another helpful feature is the ability to print the quiz in worksheet form so that you can study offline.
1. What Is Psychology?
Psychology is the scientific study of how we think, feel and behave. In this lesson, you'll get an overview of the five main approaches that have guided modern psychological research.
2. The Science of Psychology: Experiments & the Scientific Method
How do psychologists use the scientific method to research behaviors? From formulating hypotheses to reducing biases, psychology carefully analyzes behaviors and their potential causes.
3. Psychological Approaches: Functionalism, Structuralism, Gestalt, Psychoanalysis & Behaviorism
In this lesson, you will explore some of the popular approaches that psychologists use to help them study the human mind. Then, test your understanding with a brief quiz.
4. Psychological Specializations: Cognitive, Humanistic, Social, Developmental & Clinical
Psychologists today study behavior through five main specializations: cognitive, humanistic, social, developmental and clinical. In this lesson, you'll focus on the central ideas behind each approach.
5. Human Growth and Development Theories
This lesson will give you an overview of the major human development theories. You will briefly examine their strengths and weaknesses and meet a few key figures from each theory.
6. How Genetics and the Environment Interact in Human Development
Everyone is different. But what makes a person unique? In this lesson, we'll examine the way genes and the environment affect who a person is, including looking at the nature vs. nurture debate and looking at how nature and nurture influence one another.
7. Sense of Self and Self-Socialization: The Development of Self-Views
In this lesson, we will explore the sense of self, self-socialization, and the two social scientists who contributed to this field. We will examine Charles Cooley's theory of the Looking-Glass Self and George Herbert Mead's stages of play, game, and generalized other.
8. Personality Theories: Types & Overview
There are many different types of personality theories. The following lesson provides an overview of the three main types of personality theories and presents an example for each theory.
9. What Are the Different Types of Intelligence?
Psychologists don't all agree on what intelligence is, a debate that has been going on since the 19th century. In this lesson, we'll examine some of the common theories of intelligence, including those of Binet, Gardner, and Sternberg.
10. Three Stages Of Memory in Psychology: Explanation & Summary
Have you ever given thought to the fact that without memory, you would not know your own name, your address, or where and when you were born? Learn about the complex process of memory and take a short quiz to see how well your memory system works.
11. Classical Conditioning in Psychology: Definition, Principles & Examples
Can you be conditioned to associate something new with something else you naturally respond to? In this lesson, we'll take a look at a famous psychological experiment that tested how brains have the ability to automatically react to new stimuli if it's conditioned correctly.
12. Operant Conditioning in Psychology: Definition, Theory & Examples
How do we adapt our behaviors to our advantage? Can we learn from punishment and reward? With operant conditioning, our behaviors are shaped based off the responses we get from them.
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