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Ch 4: Overview of Scientific Foundations

About This Chapter

In this chapter are a variety of engaging lessons you can study any time to build a quality understanding of scientific foundations. Our instructors can get you up to speed on key concepts, and our mini quizzes will check your knowledge to ensure you're ready to excel on an upcoming test.

Overview of Scientific Foundations - Chapter Summary

We have developed an overview of scientific foundations you can use to gain greater insight into concepts like the scientific method, research variables, probability sampling methods, scatterplots and correlation. Our entertaining lessons also ensure you understand how to read scientific graphs and charts and interpret tables of scientific data. Once you've completed this chapter, you will be ready to:

  • Calculate the median, mean, range and mode
  • Develop a scientific hypothesis
  • Showcase an understanding of probability applications
  • Use the fundamental counting principle
  • Interpret scientific evidence
  • Identify and explain patterns in scientific data
  • Compare investigation results with predictions
  • Pinpoint sources of unavoidable experimental error

This chapter makes it easy to tailor your review of scientific foundations to your unique schedule and study needs. Feel free to select which lessons you'd like to review, navigate in any sequence, and visit as often as you'd like. Our subject-matter experts are happy to answer any questions you have about scientific foundation topics. At any time, use our multiple-choice quizzes and practice exam to quickly gauge your knowledge of this chapter's content.

14 Lessons in Chapter 4: Overview of Scientific Foundations
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
What is the Scientific Method? - Steps and Process

1. What is the Scientific Method? - Steps and Process

The scientific method is an organized, systematic way researchers, including psychologists, perform research. Psychologists use it to observe, describe and explain human behavior. The scientific method includes a step-by-step formula for researchers to follow.

Developing a Scientific Hypothesis

2. Developing a Scientific Hypothesis

This video describes how to create a hypothesis and includes the three main things needed to create a strong hypothesis. You'll learn how to make a clear statement that can be both tested and measured.

Research Variables: Dependent, Independent, Control, Extraneous & Moderator

3. Research Variables: Dependent, Independent, Control, Extraneous & Moderator

This lesson explores the terminology of experimental design. What are variables? How do they influence each other? Is it possible that you are seeing connections that don't actually exist?

Probability Sampling Methods: Definition & Types

4. Probability Sampling Methods: Definition & Types

Choosing a sample is one of the most important steps in research. But how should you choose? In this lesson, we'll look at three types of probability sampling: simple random, systematic, and stratified sampling.

Probability Applications: Making Predictions

5. Probability Applications: Making Predictions

Let's examine how we can make predictions of outcomes using the application of probability as our tool to help forecast possible results. We will cover how to solve for the probability and the terms associated with making predictions.

How to Use the Fundamental Counting Principle

6. How to Use the Fundamental Counting Principle

There are many situations in which you will have to make several decisions simultaneously. The fundamental counting principle will help you determine how many different possible outcomes there are when you have to make multiple simultaneous decisions.

How to Interpret Scientific Evidence

7. How to Interpret Scientific Evidence

Watch this video lesson to learn how you can tell whether or not your scientific data answers your question by determining what your data is telling you. Then test your new knowledge with a quiz!

Identifying & Explaining Patterns in Scientific Data

8. Identifying & Explaining Patterns in Scientific Data

We need to know how to analyze the data that we get from scientific data. By analyzing the trends and patterns in data we can understand what the experiment results are.

Comparing Results of an Investigation with Predictions

9. Comparing Results of an Investigation with Predictions

In this lesson, we'll be learning how to compare the results of experiments to what we predicted would happen. We'll learn how to look for validity and go through the scientific method to revise your experiment.

Identifying Sources of Unavoidable Experimental Error

10. Identifying Sources of Unavoidable Experimental Error

Good data are essential for any experiment. But no matter how hard you try, error in your data is unavoidable. In this lesson, you'll learn about the types of unavoidable experimental error to be on the lookout for and how to reduce their occurrence in your data.

How to Read Scientific Graphs & Charts

11. How to Read Scientific Graphs & Charts

How do scientists summarize their findings with visual aids? In this lesson, explore the different types of tables, charts and graphs that scientists use. Learn to read these effectively as a preview to your science studies.

Scatterplot and Correlation: Definition, Example & Analysis

12. Scatterplot and Correlation: Definition, Example & Analysis

A scatterplot is used to graphically represent the relationship between two variables. Explore the relationship between scatterplots and correlations, the different types of correlations, how to interpret scatterplots, and more.

Interpreting Tables of Scientific Data: Practice Problems

13. Interpreting Tables of Scientific Data: Practice Problems

Complex table problems getting you down? Multi-question, situational problems don't have to be a drag on your testing performance. Learn how to apply three simple rules as we walk through two table problems together.

Calculating the Mean, Median, Mode & Range: Practice Problems

14. Calculating the Mean, Median, Mode & Range: Practice Problems

Calculating the mean, median, mode, and range of a data set is a fundamental part of learning statistics. Use this video to practice your skills and then test your knowledge with a short quiz.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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