About This Chapter
Overview of the Endocrine System - Chapter Summary
In these lessons, you'll receive an overview of the endocrine system. A broad range of topics are covered, including the hypothalamus, calcium metabolism, insulin production in the pancreas, stress adaptation, Addison's disease, and use of prednisone for the treatment of adrenal gland disorders. After completing the chapter, you should be able to do the following:
- Discuss hormones and the endocrine system
- Describe functions of pituitary, thyroid, and parathyroid glands
- Explain thyroid disorders, hyperthyroidism, and thyroidectomy
- Explore functions and disorders of the pancreas
- Describe adrenal glands, including the cortex, medulla, and related disorders
- Discuss the pineal gland, including functions, melatonin, and circadian rhythm
- Explore the functions and anatomical features of hormones of the testes and ovaries
- Explain hormones of the placenta, including estrogen, progesterone, and hCG
Our subject matter experts provide an engaging discussion on the endocrine system in these short video lessons. They share lots of examples to ensure the material is easily understood. The video timelines let you navigate the videos and watch only the lessons you need to review. Vocabulary words are highlighted in bold for easy identification. A brief multiple-choice quiz is available for each lesson to assess your understanding of the topics covered.
1. Hormones: Definition, Function & Intro to the Endocrine System
This lesson introduces the endocrine system and provides a brief overview of each endocrine gland. It also provides the definition of hormones and describes their general function inside the body.
2. What Is the Pituitary Gland? - Functions, Hormones & Hypothalamus
In this lesson, we'll discuss the functions of the anterior and posterior portions of the pituitary gland, the hormones they release and the relationship with the hypothalamus.
3. Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland: Names & Functions
The anterior pituitary gland secretes six hormones. In this lesson, you will learn the functions of the hormones: growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
4. The Thyroid Gland: Functions, Calcitonin & TSH
Your thyroid gland produces the hormones T3 and thyroxine (T4), which play a role in metabolism. Your thyroid also produces calcitonin, which helps regulate blood calcium levels. In this lesson, you will learn about the thyroid gland and its hormones, including how they are regulated by TSH.
5. Parathyroid Gland: Calcium Metabolism, Osteoclasts & PTH
The parathyroid glands are tiny endocrine glands found on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. In this lesson,, you will learn about the parathyroid glands, and the role parathyroid hormone plays in maintaining normal blood calcium levels.
6. Pancreas: Functions, Anatomy & Insulin Production
The islets of Langerhans within your pancreas produce the hormones insulin and glucagon. In this lesson, you will learn how these hormones regulate your blood sugar level in opposite ways.
7. Adrenal Glands: Function, Cortex & Medulla
The adrenal glands sit on top of your kidneys and are comprised of an inner medulla region that is enclosed by the outer adrenal cortex. Both portions of the adrenal gland secrete hormones that regulate body functions and help maintain internal balance.
8. Adrenal Glands: Epinephrine, Norepinephrine & Stress Adaptation
The adrenal medulla is the central portion of the adrenal gland. In this lesson, you will learn about the two hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla - epinephrine and norepinephrine - and how they help you deal with short-term stressors.
9. Adrenal Cortex: Glucocorticoids and Androgens
The adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones. In this lesson, you will learn about two of these steroid hormones: glucocorticoids, which help you deal with long-term stress, and androgens, which influence male sexual characteristics.
10. Adrenal Cortex: Aldosterone and Body Fluid Balance
Mineralocorticoids are a type of steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex. In this lesson, you will learn about the main mineralocorticoid, aldosterone, and how it regulates your body's salt and water balance.
11. Pineal Gland, Functions, Melatonin & Circadian Rhythm
Deep inside your brain sits a very small endocrine gland called the pineal gland. This tiny gland secretes the hormone melatonin, and in this lesson, you will learn about the role melatonin plays in regulating sleep and wake cycles.
12. Hormones of the Testes and Ovaries: Functions & Anatomical Features
The testes and the ovaries secrete steroid hormones that help you grow and develop. In this lesson, we will learn about the female hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and the male hormone, testosterone, and how these hormones influence the development of secondary sex characteristics.
13. Hormones of the Placenta: Estrogen, Progesterone & hCG
The placenta is an endocrine gland that is only present during pregnancy. In this lesson, you will learn about the hormones it produces, including human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), progesterone, estrogen, and human placental lactogen (hPL).
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