About This Chapter
Overview of the Endocrine System - Chapter Summary
In these lessons, you'll receive an overview of the endocrine system. A broad range of topics are covered, including the hypothalamus, calcium metabolism, insulin production in the pancreas, stress adaptation, Addison's disease, and use of prednisone for the treatment of adrenal gland disorders. After completing the chapter, you should be able to do the following:
- Discuss hormones and the endocrine system
- Describe functions of pituitary, thyroid, and parathyroid glands
- Explain thyroid disorders, hyperthyroidism, and thyroidectomy
- Explore functions and disorders of the pancreas
- Describe adrenal glands, including the cortex, medulla, and related disorders
- Discuss the pineal gland, including functions, melatonin, and circadian rhythm
- Explore the functions and anatomical features of hormones of the testes and ovaries
- Explain hormones of the placenta, including estrogen, progesterone, and hCG
Our subject matter experts provide an engaging discussion on the endocrine system in these short video lessons. They share lots of examples to ensure the material is easily understood. The video timelines let you navigate the videos and watch only the lessons you need to review. Vocabulary words are highlighted in bold for easy identification. A brief multiple-choice quiz is available for each lesson to assess your understanding of the topics covered.
1. Hormones: Definition, Function & Intro to the Endocrine System
Hormones, which are the chemical messengers that drive much of the function of the human body, come from the endocrine system. Learn about the function of hormones, the glands that they come from, and the receptors along their journey.
2. What Is the Pituitary Gland? - Functions, Hormones & Hypothalamus
The pituitary gland is a small endocrine gland located at the base of the skull that produces hormones into the bloodstream to maintain internal body functions. Learn about the function of the anterior pituitary gland, posterior pituitary gland, and the importance of the hypothalamus in hormone production.
3. Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland: Names & Functions
The pituitary gland produces a variety of hormones that affect growth and development, body metabolism, sexuality, and reproduction. Learn about the hormones of the anterior pituitary gland (growth hormone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, & thyroid-stimulating hormone), the function of each hormone, and the relationship between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
4. The Thyroid Gland: Functions, Calcitonin & TSH
The thyroid gland regulates blood calcium levels through calcitonin and is stimulated by TSH to form thyroid hormones. This lesson looks at the thyroid gland, thyroid hormones T3 and T4, TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), and calcitonin.
5. Parathyroid Gland: Calcium Metabolism, Osteoclasts & PTH
Parathyroid glands are endocrine glands on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. Parathyroid glands play a vital role in regulating the minerals calcium and phosphorous in the body. Learn about the structure of parathyroid glands, and the role these glands play in regulating calcium, phosphorus, osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the body.
6. Pancreas: Functions, Anatomy & Insulin Production
The pancreas' islets of Langerhans produce insulin and glucagon, which are critical to regulate the body's blood sugar. Learn about this process and explore the pancreas' structure, functions, and anatomy. Understand insulin production and examine the endocrine and exocrine glands.
7. Adrenal Glands: Function, Cortex & Medulla
Adrenal glands are endocrine glands that are located above each of the kidneys. The outer part of the adrenal glands are known as the adrenal cortex and are responsible for secreting steroid hormones. The center of the adrenal glands are called the adrenal medulla and are responsible for releasing hormones known as catecholamines. Learn about the structure of adrenal glands, the types of steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex, and the function of the adrenal medulla.
8. Adrenal Glands: Epinephrine, Norepinephrine & Stress Adaptation
The adrenal gland contains a subcomponent known as the adrenal medulla which is tightly linked with our fight or flight response. Learn about the catecholamines called epinephrine and norepinephrine that are released by the adrenal medulla when you are adapting to stress.
9. Adrenal Cortex: Glucocorticoids and Androgens
Adrenal glands are endocrine organs that secrete hormones into the bloodstream. The adrenal cortex is the outer part of the glands, which secrete steroid hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens. Learn how the adrenal cortex secretes hormones, the function of glucocorticoids and androgens and specific types of hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex.
10. Adrenal Cortex: Aldosterone and Body Fluid Balance
Adrenal glands are endocrine organs that secrete hormones into the bloodstream. The adrenal cortex is the outer part of the glands, which secretes steroid hormones, including mineralocorticoids. Learn about the main mineralocorticoid - aldosterone, the role that aldosterone plays in the renin-angiotensin system, and how aldosterone regulates sodium, potassium and blood pressure in the body.
11. Pineal Gland, Functions, Melatonin & Circadian Rhythm
The pineal gland holds the key to great sleep. Learn how your circadian rhythm of sleeping and waking is regulated by the hormone melatonin that is secreted by the pineal gland, and the seasonal affective disorder that might result when the pineal gland gets tricked by the weather.
12. Hormones of the Testes and Ovaries: Functions & Anatomical Features
The hormones of the testes and ovaries are responsible for the functions and anatomical development of these organs. Learn about the gonads, ovaries, estrogen and progesterone, and testes and testosterone.
13. Hormones of the Placenta: Estrogen, Progesterone & hCG
The placenta is an endocrine gland that is vital to pregnancy. Learn about the structure and function of the placenta, and explore its hormones including estrogen, progesterone, and hCG. Review the corpus luteum and recognize which hormone is produced by a fertilized egg.
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