About This Chapter
Standard: Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
About This Chapter
Students who possess competency in this standard know how to prepare for, contribute to, and benefit from interactive and group discussions. They understand how to present their perspective effectively, as well as receive others' viewpoints and adjust their own when applicable.
Topics addressed in these lessons include the following:
- Observing and working with different types of communication (nonverbal, written, etc.)
- Understanding the stages of group formation
- Tips for engaging active listening
- Strategies for preparing for and conducting effective meetings
- Using group communication technologies
- Navigating decision making in interactive settings
- Appreciating diverse viewpoints in group communication
When they have achieved mastery of this standard's principles, students actively prepare for and engage in group communications, presenting their views clearly and inviting others to do the same. They respect diversity in interactive settings, listen carefully, and demonstrate flexibility in adapting their viewpoints according to new evidence or information as it is presented. Academic and professional environments frequently call for the use of the tenets of this standard, and students' effectiveness in displaying them will increase their success in both settings.
How to Use These Lessons in Your Classroom
Below are a few strategies for integrating these lessons into classroom instruction in the ELA.CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.1 standard:
Meeting Preparation and Participation Lessons
After showing the video on preparing, conducting, and contributing to productive meetings, explain that in the next class session, students will be discussing the proposed pros and cons of school uniforms. Ask each student to come prepared with some basic research about the topic. During the next class meeting, arrange the chairs in a circle (if practical) so everyone is facing each other, and invite students to contribute what information they discovered, along with their own perspectives as influenced (or not) by their research.
Lessons in Determining Group Rules
Assign the video on stages of group development as homework. During the next class session, arrange the class into small groups, and ask them to determine how their group will function in making a decision as a group (presented in the next tip). What are their rules? Will they raise their hands before speaking? Go around in a circle to give everyone an equal chance to participate? After they have determined these things within their groups, proceed to the next tip below.
Group Decision-Making Lessons
View the videos on understanding group decision making and techniques for group decision making. If they are not already in them, divide the students into small groups and ask each group to discuss a simple topic - for example, which fruit they should serve at a class party. To start the discussion, give some of the students index cards with a brief description of the position they are to take and a few corresponding reasons (e.g., oranges because they are easy to transport and don't need to be washed, grapes because they are easy to share, any fruit as long as it is organic and sustainably grown, etc.); also include some index cards with counter positions (e.g., not oranges because peeling them is inconvenient and makes a mess, whatever fruit is most economical to purchase, etc.). Ask each group to come to a conclusion about what fruit they will serve, reminding all the students to practice expressing their viewpoints clearly, respecting diverse assertions, listening to others' views, and incorporating relevant new information into their own perspectives when called for.
1. The Communication Process
This lesson describes the process of communication. Terms such as sender, receiver, channel, encoding, decoding, noise, and feedback will be defined and explained with examples.
2. What are the Functions of Communication? - Definition & Examples
The functions of communication in an organization are to inform, persuade, and motivate. Employees need to have effective organizational communication in order to achieve excellent job performance.
3. Types of Communication: Interpersonal, Non-Verbal, Written & Oral
This lesson distinguishes between the various methods of communication used by managers, including interpersonal communication, nonverbal communication, written communication and oral communication.
4. Understanding the Nonverbal Communication of Group Members
Nonverbal communication can be difficult to comprehend in group business environment. Subtle cues are often missed, which can easily have verbal messages misunderstood. There are five key functions of nonverbal communication that can help identify potential issues in communication.
5. Preparing, Conducting, and Contributing to Productive Meetings
There are a few key elements that should be considered when planning for a productive meeting. Organizing an effective meeting is a monumental task that involves preparing, conducting and contributing valuable ideas, resources and information in order to be successful.
6. Technologies for Group Communication and Collaboration: Groupware, Teleconferencing & Virtual Worlds
Technologies for group communication and collaboration allow intricate business relationships to exist and deliver productivity no matter where the employee is located. Groupware, teleconferencing and virtual worlds are three ways that technology is changing the face of the workplace.
7. Listening Effectively in Groups: Critical, Selective, Active & Empathetic Listening
Being an effective listener allows relationship building and leads to increased productivity in the workplace. To form an environment for effective listening, you need to know the best group sizes and the four types of effective listening.
8. Barriers to Effective Listening in Groups
Barriers to effective listening in groups can cause significant workplace issues. Selective listening and selective perception are two type of problems that can impede successful business decisions.
9. Ineffective Group Communication in Groups
Ineffective group communication can dramatically impact the productivity and workplace success of a company. There are five factors that need to be addressed in order for groups to work together effectively.
10. Audience-Centered Communication: Description & Effectiveness
Audience-centered communication is a type of communication where a speaker analyzes the audience to determine the content, language usage and listener expectations. It allows effective communication because the speaker can tailor messages to the needs of the listener.
11. Implicit and Explicit Rules of Communication: Definitions & Examples
There are two different rules of communication within a business environment. Implicit communication focuses on the ambiguous areas of gestures, vocal tones and actions, while explicit communication deals with what a person writes or says directly.
12. How Perception Influences the Communication Process
Perception's effect on the communication process is all about how the same message can be interpreted differently by different people. Distortions, such as stereotypes, projections and halo effects, all affect worker relationships and productivity.
13. Groups in Organizations: Formation & Types
There are many different types of groups, likely more than you may be aware of. In this lesson, we will explore the various types of groups and how they are defined. We will also look at how or why they form, as this will give us a better understanding of their focus and design.
14. Stages of Group Development: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing & Adjourning
Managers must be able to recognize and understand group behavior at its various stages. This lesson explains Tuckman's five stages of group development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
15. Qualities of Group Members: Knowledge, Skills & Abilities
Groups have a lot of dynamics, and in many ways, those dynamics are made up of the members in the group. Each member brings different knowledge, skills and abilities to the group, and in this lesson, we will address those three key areas.
16. Roles of Group Members: Perceptions, Expectations & Conflict
Groups are made up of people who each have their own perceptions and expectations of the group and its work. If those perceptions and expectations are not met, conflict can arise. In this lesson, we'll identify the types of roles in groups and see the interplay of expectations, perceptions and conflict within a group.
17. How Types of Group Norms Influence Individual Behavior
Groups, though made up of individuals, have their own sets of norms. These sets develop as the group grows and interacts and can change a person's behavior that might be new to the group. Here we review types of norms present in groups and their potential impact on an individual's behavior.
18. How Group Status Influences Individual Behavior
Our social status, or, more specifically, how we feel our social status is viewed by others, impacts our behavior in many ways. This lesson explores how belonging to certain status groups can influence how we behave and see others.
19. How Size Affects Group Performance
Group size has a direct impact on group productivity and function, allowing different roles to emerge that will influence how the group operates and interacts. In this lesson, we will review group size as a variable in group performance.
20. Becoming a Cohesive Group: Using Team Building to Increase Group Cohesion
Have you ever wondered why some groups seem to work better together than others? In this lesson you will learn what it means to be a cohesive group and how team building activities can be used to increase group cohesion.
21. The Difference Between Groups and Teams: Definition & Contrasts
Although subtle, there are differences between groups and teams. These are typically the reason the group or team was assembled and the goal they are trying to obtain. In this lesson, we will address the differences between groups and teams.
22. Types of Work Teams: Functional, Cross-Functional & Self-Directed
Teams have become a popular way of organizing employees in organizations. This lesson identifies three different types of work teams: functional, cross-functional and self-directed teams.
23. Characteristics of Effective Teams: Examples and Qualities
Effective teams can contribute heavily to the success of an organization. This lesson explores the key characteristics that make teams effective in the business world. You'll see an example of each characteristic and learn about underlying, supportive aspects of effectiveness.
24. Strengths and Weaknesses of Group Decision Making
Group decision making is when a group of individuals tackle a problem together to achieve a solution. There are both strengths and weaknesses to this type of organizational decision making.
25. Group vs. Individual Decision Making: When to Use Each
At times an individual makes a decision, and at other times a group makes the decision. In this lesson, we will look at the issues surrounding group versus individual decisions
26. Techniques for Group Decision-Making in Business
Group decision-making is where a group of individuals are brought together in hopes of determining a solution to a problem. The three types of group decision making are nominal, Delphi technique and brainstorming.
27. Groupthink: Definition & Examples
Some groups are quick to make decisions to maintain cohesion, but this can be a critical mistake to make. This lesson explains the concept of groupthink using the Challenger explosion as an example.
28. Group Polarization in Group Decision Making
Group polarization focuses on how groups usually make decisions that are more extreme than the original thoughts and views of the individual team members. There are two main reasons why group polarization happens within an organization.
29. Team Conflict and the Work Process
Conflict is inevitable in groups, which is why managers must understand it. In this lesson you will learn about the reasons why teams may encounter conflict while working together.
30. The Devil's Advocate: Impacts on Groups Decision Making
The devil's advocacy decision-making technique is where the group is allowed to become the critic in the proposed decision. This technique helps prevent groupthink and increases the chance of a high-quality decision.
31. Cultural and Ethical Considerations in Group Decision Making
Culture and ethics impact how groups interact and, thus, how they make decisions. In this lesson, we will talk about culture and ethics in a group setting.
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Other chapters within the Common Core ELA - Speaking and Listening Grades 9-10: Standards course