Ch 9: Pathologies of the Respiratory System

About This Chapter

Watch video lessons and learn about the anatomy and diseases of the respiratory system. These video lessons are short and engaging and make learning easy!

Pathologies of the Respiratory System - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives

The video lessons in this chapter deal with the lungs and other parts of the respiratory system. You'll get a look at the anatomy and function of each structure and learn about the conditions and diseases that can affect respiration. This chapter is designed to teach you:

  • The anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system
  • How respiratory acidosis and alkalosis occur
  • About chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its causes and treatments
  • Causes of restrictive lung disease
  • Causes and treatment of tuberculosis, pulmonary embolism and cystic fibrosis

Video Objective
Gross Anatomy of the Airway and Lungs: Conducting and Respiratory Zones Understand how the airway and lungs work.
Function of Pleural Cavities and Pleural Membranes Understand how the pleural cavities and pleural membranes work in respiration.
Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood Learn how carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodstream.
Respiratory Acidosis: Causes and Regulation Examine the causes of acidosis and how the body compensates for it.
Respiratory Alkalosis: Causes and Regulation Examine the causes of alkalosis and how the body compensates for it.
The Causes of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Explore the factors that result in COPD.
Pneumothorax and Atelectasis: Similarities, Differences and Causes Define each condition and give causes and treatments.
Extrinsic Causes of Restrictive Lung Disease Explore conditions including pleural effusion, myasthenia gravis and kyphoscoliosis.
The Lungs and the Heart: One Affects the Other Examine the symbiotic relationship between the respiratory and the cardiovascular systems.
Conditions Associated with Respiratory Failure Become familiar with respiratory stress syndrome.
Tuberculosis: Skin Test, Treatments and Latency Learn how tuberculosis is diagnosed and treated.
Bacterial Pneumonia: Causes and Treatments Explore the reasons why bacterial pneumonia occurs and how it is treated.
Viral and Fungal Causes of Respiratory Disease Look at viral and pneumocystis pneumonia and their characteristics and treatments.
Pulmonary Embolism: What is it and Why Does it Occur? Learn the causes, symptoms and treatments for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolisms.
Lung Cancer: Causes, Signs and Treatments Examine the signs and treatment options for various types of lung cancers.
Cystic Fibrosis: Cause, Progression and Treatment Explore the symptoms and treatments for this disease along with its possible impact on other organ systems.

17 Lessons in Chapter 9: Pathologies of the Respiratory System
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Gross Anatomy of the Airway and Lungs: Conducting & Respiratory Zones

1. Gross Anatomy of the Airway and Lungs: Conducting & Respiratory Zones

The respiratory system ensures the body has sufficient oxygen while removing carbon dioxide. Learn about the gross anatomy of the airway and lungs, including the upper and lower respiratory system, and explore the conducting and respiratory zones by reviewing air movement and gas exchange in the respiratory zones.

Function of Pleural Cavities and Pleural Membranes

2. Function of Pleural Cavities and Pleural Membranes

The pleural cavities of the lungs are lined by the pleural membranes which secrete a lubricating fluid allowing lungs to move freely when breathing. Learn about the pleural cavities and membranes, transpulmonary pressure, and the pneumothorax.

Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood

3. Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood

Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood in two different forms, bicarbonate and carbaminohemoglobin. In this lesson, dive into carbon dioxide transportation in the blood, in the lungs, and in metabolizing tissues.

Respiratory Acidosis: Causes and Regulation

4. Respiratory Acidosis: Causes and Regulation

Respiratory acidosis occurs when there are elevated levels of CO2 due to respiratory malfunction. Discover how the kidneys and lungs work together, common causes of respiratory acidosis, and how to regulate and treat the condition.

Respiratory Alkalosis: Causes and Regulation

5. Respiratory Alkalosis: Causes and Regulation

Respiratory alkalosis is a medical condition characterized by decreased levels of CO2 in the body as a result of increased expiration of CO2. Learn about alkalemia vs. alkalosis, carbon dioxide regulation, and the causes of respiratory alkalosis.

The Causes of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

6. The Causes of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, is a respiratory condition involving chronic airway inflammation, difficulty breathing, and mucus production. Explore the common causes of COPD, treatment options, and learn about other obstructive pulmonary diseases such as asthma and bronchiectasis.

Pneumothorax and Atelectasis: Similarities, Differences & Causes

7. Pneumothorax and Atelectasis: Similarities, Differences & Causes

Atelectasis and pneumothorax can both cause shortness of breath and chest pain; however, they're distinct diagnoses with disparate findings on chest films and require different treatments. This lesson will compare and contrast atelectasis, which occurs when there is insufficient air in the alveoli, and pneumothorax, which occurs when there is air in the pleural space.

Extrinsic Causes of Restrictive Lung Disease

8. Extrinsic Causes of Restrictive Lung Disease

Lung Disease refers to a variety of conditions that cause issues in the lungs; there are extrinsic contributors, including those that exist outside the lungs themselves. See how the skeleton, obesity, muscular disorders, and pleural space contribute to restrictive lung disease.

Intrinsic Causes of Restrictive Lung Disease

9. Intrinsic Causes of Restrictive Lung Disease

Restrictive lung disease can be caused by intrinsic factors such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis. Explore intrinsic restrictive lung disease, its causes, and the clinical signs and diagnostics of lung disease.

Conditions Associated with Respiratory Failure

10. Conditions Associated with Respiratory Failure

Several conditions associated with respiratory failure have a high fatality rate. Learn about these conditions, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, infant respiratory distress syndrome, and acute respiratory failure, and examine some causes and treatments of respiratory conditions.

Tuberculosis: Diagnosis, Treatments & Latency

11. Tuberculosis: Diagnosis, Treatments & Latency

Tuberculosis (TB) is a respiratory disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Learn about latent and active tuberculosis, how TB is diagnosed, and the treatment of the disease with a combination of antibiotics.

Bacterial Pneumonia: Causes, Signs & Treatments

12. Bacterial Pneumonia: Causes, Signs & Treatments

Bacterial pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lungs caused by different kinds of bacteria. Learn to recognize the signs and symptoms of bacterial pneumonia, discover the different bacteria that cause pneumonia, and explore its diagnosis and treatment.

Viral and Fungal Causes of Pneumonia

13. Viral and Fungal Causes of Pneumonia

Pneumonia occurs when an inflammatory process transpires in the air sacs in one or both lungs; sometimes this can be caused by a virus such as the influenza virus, or a fungus which typically affects those with a weakened immune system. This lesson will explore signs and symptoms of pneumonia, diagnostic testing, and available treatments.

Pulmonary Embolism: What is it and Why Does it Occur?

14. Pulmonary Embolism: What is it and Why Does it Occur?

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a condition that occurs when blood clots form in veins deep inside the body, usually in the legs. While these clots can be painful, they are far more dangerous if they break off and make their way to the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism. Discover what DVT and pulmonary embolisms really are, why these problems occur, and what can be done to diagnose and treat them.

Lung Cancer: Causes, Signs & Treatments

15. Lung Cancer: Causes, Signs & Treatments

Lung cancer is an umbrella term for various types of cancers. Explore the different types of lung cancers such as non-small cell lung cancer, small cell lung cancer, and other types of airway cancer, and examine the causes, signs, and treatments for each type.

Cystic Fibrosis: Cause, Progression, and Treatment

16. Cystic Fibrosis: Cause, Progression, and Treatment

Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease affecting the exocrine glands, which are the organs responsible for making fluids in the body that is potentially fatal but treatable, especially when diagnosed early. Learn about the disease process of cystic fibrosis, including the mutated gene that causes it, its symptoms, progression, and the ways in which it can be diagnosed and treated.

The Lungs and the Heart: One Affects the Other

17. The Lungs and the Heart: One Affects the Other

Heart function and lung function are interdependent, meaning effective cardiac and pulmonary performance are both vital for human life. This lesson will describe both cor pulmonale, which affects the right ventricle of the heart due to an issue with the lungs, and pulmonary edema, in which respiratory function is impacted by left ventricle failure.

Chapter Practice Exam
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Practice Final Exam
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