About This Chapter
Pathologies of the Respiratory System - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The video lessons in this chapter deal with the lungs and other parts of the respiratory system. You'll get a look at the anatomy and function of each structure and learn about the conditions and diseases that can affect respiration. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- The anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system
- How respiratory acidosis and alkalosis occur
- About chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its causes and treatments
- Causes of restrictive lung disease
- Causes and treatment of tuberculosis, pulmonary embolism and cystic fibrosis
|Gross Anatomy of the Airway and Lungs: Conducting and Respiratory Zones||Understand how the airway and lungs work.|
|Function of Pleural Cavities and Pleural Membranes||Understand how the pleural cavities and pleural membranes work in respiration.|
|Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood||Learn how carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodstream.|
|Respiratory Acidosis: Causes and Regulation||Examine the causes of acidosis and how the body compensates for it.|
|Respiratory Alkalosis: Causes and Regulation||Examine the causes of alkalosis and how the body compensates for it.|
|The Causes of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease||Explore the factors that result in COPD.|
|Pneumothorax and Atelectasis: Similarities, Differences and Causes||Define each condition and give causes and treatments.|
|Extrinsic Causes of Restrictive Lung Disease||Explore conditions including pleural effusion, myasthenia gravis and kyphoscoliosis.|
|The Lungs and the Heart: One Affects the Other||Examine the symbiotic relationship between the respiratory and the cardiovascular systems.|
|Conditions Associated with Respiratory Failure||Become familiar with respiratory stress syndrome.|
|Tuberculosis: Skin Test, Treatments and Latency||Learn how tuberculosis is diagnosed and treated.|
|Bacterial Pneumonia: Causes and Treatments||Explore the reasons why bacterial pneumonia occurs and how it is treated.|
|Viral and Fungal Causes of Respiratory Disease||Look at viral and pneumocystis pneumonia and their characteristics and treatments.|
|Pulmonary Embolism: What is it and Why Does it Occur?||Learn the causes, symptoms and treatments for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolisms.|
|Lung Cancer: Causes, Signs and Treatments||Examine the signs and treatment options for various types of lung cancers.|
|Cystic Fibrosis: Cause, Progression and Treatment||Explore the symptoms and treatments for this disease along with its possible impact on other organ systems.|
1. Gross Anatomy of the Airway and Lungs: Conducting & Respiratory Zones
The respiratory system includes the lungs as well as other organs that help to get oxygen into the blood and carbon dioxide out of the blood. The conducting zone of the respiratory system carries oxygen into the lungs and carbon dioxide out of the lungs. The respiratory zone is where oxygen and carbon dioxide move into and out of the blood.
2. Function of Pleural Cavities and Pleural Membranes
Each lung is contained within a pleural cavity, the space between the outside of the lung and inside of the chest wall. Pleural membranes cover the outside of the lungs and line the inside of the chest wall. The lungs remain expanded when we breathe due to a vacuum effect within the pleural cavity.
3. Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood
While carbon dioxide is a metabolic waste product, it plays some important physiological roles as well. This lesson describes how carbon dioxide is transported in our blood, how carbon dioxide is converted into a pH buffer, and how carbon dioxide helps with oxygen transport.
4. Respiratory Acidosis: Causes and Regulation
This lesson will discuss an important relationship between the kidneys and the lungs and how both of them play a role in respiratory acidosis. We'll also discuss some of the major causes of respiratory acidosis.
5. Respiratory Alkalosis: Causes and Regulation
This lesson will discuss a condition called respiratory alkalosis. We'll define and compare alkalosis vs. alkalemia as well as what may cause respiratory alkalosis and how it may be controlled.
6. The Causes of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
This lesson explores the causes of obstructive lung disease, including COPD, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis. We'll also discuss asthma, cystic fibrosis, and bronchiectasis.
7. Pneumothorax and Atelectasis: Similarities, Differences & Causes
This lesson will discuss two conditions, both of which are sometimes called a collapsed lung, that have some similarities and some major differences. These two conditions are known as pneumothorax and atelectasis.
8. Extrinsic Causes of Restrictive Lung Disease
Did you know that air can actually cause you problems breathing? It's true. Find out in this lesson how air, fluid, fat, and all sorts of other stuff causes difficulty breathing.
9. Intrinsic Causes of Restrictive Lung Disease
What does popcorn have to do with lung disease? Well, this lesson will help you find out as we venture into the world of the intrinsic causes of restrictive lung disease.
10. Conditions Associated with Respiratory Failure
This lesson will discuss two causes of respiratory failure, one of which occurs in adults and one of which occurs in infants. You'll also find out how too much alcohol can lead to one of these respiratory problems.
11. Tuberculosis: Diagnosis, Treatments & Latency
This lesson will discuss the disease known as tuberculosis. We will talk about mycobacterium tuberculosis, latent TB, TB disease, mycolic acid, and the symptoms, signs, and treatments used for this terrible disease.
12. Bacterial Pneumonia: Causes, Signs & Treatments
This lesson will discuss the causes of bacterial pneumonia. We'll also look into how bacterial pneumonia is diagnosed and treated as well as the common signs and symptoms associated with this condition.
13. Viral and Fungal Causes of Pneumonia
This lesson will discuss two causes of pneumonia: viruses and fungi. We'll go over some of the main agents that cause these types of pneumonia and how viral and fungal pneumonia differ from bacterial pneumonia.
14. Pulmonary Embolism: What is it and Why Does it Occur?
This lesson will discuss a condition known as deep vein thrombosis, including the three main reasons for its formation, as well as its very famous and deadly complication: a pulmonary embolism.
15. Lung Cancer: Causes, Signs & Treatments
Lung cancer is actually one big term for many different types of cancers. This lesson will help you understand how lung cancer is classified based on its origins and appearance.
16. Cystic Fibrosis: Cause, Progression, and Treatment
This lesson will discuss a genetic disorder called cystic fibrosis as well as it how it affects the respiratory and digestive system, the ways by which it can be diagnosed, and treated.
17. The Lungs and the Heart: One Affects the Other
This lesson discusses how the heart and lungs may cause one another problems when one or the other becomes sick or damaged. Namely, we will discuss something known as cor pulmonale and pulmonary edema.
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Other chapters within the Pathophysiology Textbook course
- The Basic Components of Pathophysiology
- The Consequences of an Aberrant Immune System
- The Pathophysiology of Neoplasia
- Skin Related Pathology
- Trauma and Injury to the Nervous System
- Major Disorders Involving the Nervous System
- Congenital Cardiovascular Defects
- Acquired Cardiovascular Abnormalities
- Important Renal Anatomy and Physiology
- Diseases of the Urinary System
- Conditions Affecting the Gastrointestinal System
- Metabolic Derangements
- Blood Disorders: Anemia
- Hematological Maladies
- Blood Cancers
- Alterations of the Musculoskeletal System
- Reproductive System Disorders
- Clinical Test Results: Electrolytes, Cells, and Blood Proteins
- Clinical Test Results: Organ Function and Health