About This Chapter
PECT PAPA: Syntax, Grammar & Sentence Structure - Chapter Summary
This study guide will help you prepare for the writing section of the PECT Pre-Service Academic Performance Assessment exam (PAPA). Watch video lessons on sentence structure, clarity and verb tense to improve your writing skills and correctly answer selected-answer questions. You'll also cover the following topics:
- Complex and compound sentences
- Types of clauses
- Parallelism in writing
- Sentence fragments
- Passive and active voice
- Subject-verb and sentence agreement
- Shifts in mood and voice
- Dangling and misplaced modifiers
Each of our engaging video lessons covers a concept in ten minutes or less. Use the video transcript to follow along or clarify concepts. After you've completed each lesson, take the self-assessment quiz to test what you know and what you still need to review.
PECT PAPA: Syntax, Grammar & Sentence Structure Objectives
The PECT PAPA is part of the certification process for undergraduate students seeking educator preparation certificates in the state of Pennsylvania. You will have 75 minutes to complete the writing module of the test, which consists of 36 selected-response questions, two sentence-correction assignments and one constructed-response assignment.
The lessons in this chapter will help you to craft a better constructed response by improving your writing skills. In addition, you'll cover the essential information for questions that measure your understanding of clear, concise writing and proper grammar.
1. Types of Sentences: Simple, Compound & Complex
Sentences can be categorized as simple, compound, and complex. In this lesson, you'll learn about all three, break down example sentences, and test yourself at the end with a short quiz.
2. How to Write Better by Improving Your Sentence Structure
Often times in writing, we know what we want to say, but it doesn't seem to come out right. In this video we will learn the steps needed to improve your writing with better sentence structure.
3. How to Structure Sentences in an Essay
Sometimes we know what we want to write, but we are just unsure of the best way to write it. In this video, we will cover ways to structure sentences in an essay.
4. Varied Sentence Structure in Writing
Learn the meaning of sentence structure and the importance of varying sentence structure in writing in this lesson. Four strategies to help you vary your sentence structure will also be described.
5. Sentence Structure: Identify and Avoid 'Mixed Structure' Sentences
A mixed structure sentence is a common error that occurs when a writer starts a sentence with one structure but switches to a different structure in the middle of the sentence. This video will teach you how to spot and avoid this type of error.
6. Independent & Dependent Clauses: Subordination & Coordination
This lesson is about independent and dependent clauses, and how they make up a sentence. Dependent clauses, like the name suggests, rely on other elements in a sentence. Independent clauses, on the other hand, can stand alone. Learn more in this lesson.
7. Sentence Clarity: How to Write Clear Sentences
Just because you know a good sentence when you read one doesn't mean that you think it's easy to put one together - forget about writing an essay's worth. Learn how to write clear sentences and turn rough ones into gems.
8. Parallelism: How to Write and Identify Parallel Sentences
Sentences that aren't parallel sound funny, even if they look perfectly correct at first glance. Learn what makes a sentence parallel, how to revise a sentence to make it parallel, and how to write beautiful, balanced sentences of your own.
9. Sentence Fragments, Comma Splices and Run-on Sentences
Sentence fragments, comma splices, and run-on sentences are grammatical and stylistic bugs that can seriously derail an otherwise polished academic paper. Learn how to identify and eliminate these errors in your own writing here.
10. Active and Passive Voice
You may have heard your teachers toss around the terms 'passive voice' and 'active voice'. But if you've never really understood what it means to write actively or passively, stick with us -- and learn how to turn to awkward passive sentences into bright, active ones.
11. Verb Tense & Subject-Verb Agreement
Learn all about verb tense and subject-verb agreement in our first lesson on this tricky topic. We'll look at examples to help you understand this concept.
12. Subject-Verb Agreement: Using Uncommon Singular and Plural Nouns and Pronouns
Subject-verb agreement is a tricky beast. Learn which uncommon singular and plural nouns and pronouns are most likely to trip you up when trying to craft essays with good grammar.
13. Inappropriate Shifts in Verb Voice and Mood
If a person's attitude or tone of voice is constantly changing, he or she can be hard to read or understand. This can be applied to how we write. To communicate clearly, we need to recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.
14. What Are Misplaced Modifiers and Dangling Modifiers?
I have this recurring nightmare where all my modifiers are misplaced or dangling and everybody's laughing at me. Don't let this happen to you! Learn why modifiers are important and why putting them in the right place is even more so.
15. Sentence Agreement: Avoiding Faulty Collective Ownership
A common error occurs whenever a writer uses wording that suggests that a lot of people own or use just one thing, when really they all own or use their own separate things. This video will explain how to identify and fix this type of error.
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Other chapters within the PECT PAPA: Practice & Study Guide course
- PECT PAPA: Meaning of Words & Phrases in Text
- PECT PAPA: Purpose, Main Idea & Organization of Texts
- PECT PAPA: Analyzing & Interpreting Texts
- PECT PAPA: Drawing Inferences from Texts
- PECT PAPA: Numbers & the Number System
- PECT PAPA: Whole Numbers
- PECT PAPA: Positive & Negative Numbers
- PECT PAPA: Integers
- PECT PAPA: Rational & Irrational Numbers
- PECT PAPA: Decimals
- PECT PAPA: Percents
- PECT PAPA: Fractions
- PECT PAPA: Exponents
- PECT PAPA: Linear & Nonlinear Functions
- PECT PAPA: Inequalities
- PECT PAPA: Basic Measurement
- PECT PAPA: Geometric Concepts
- PECT PAPA: Measuring Geometric Figures
- PECT PAPA: Data & Statistics
- PECT PAPA: Probability
- PECT PAPA: Problem Solving & Reasoning in Math
- PECT PAPA: Writing Structure
- PECT PAPA: Spelling, Capitalization & Punctuation
- PECT PAPA: Writing Strategy
- PECT PAPA: Revising Your Writing
- PECT PAPA Flashcards