About This Chapter
Periodic Table - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The periodic table was created by Dmitri Mendeleev, a Russian chemist, during the latter part of the 19th-century. In its present form, the 118 natural and man-made elements on the table are arranged to reflect their increasing atomic number or number of protons. Through this series of videos, you'll see how these elements are grouped into chemical 'families' that can provide us with important information about their distinctive properties. These include metals and metalloids, such as the toxic halogens found in household cleaners or the silicon associated with computer chips.
As you progress through the lesson, you'll learn how to spot some of the trends found on the table, including those related to boiling point, electronegativity, ionization energy and metallic character. When you've finished with the lessons, you should be able to:
- Identify the groups of elements found on the periodic table, including their special characteristics
- Understand how rows and columns coincide with energy levels and number of valence electrons
- Identify and explain periodic trends, including those related to atomic size and energy levels
- Understand how scientists categorize substances according to their chemical and electrical properties
|The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups and Periods||Understand the organizational structure of the periodic table.|
|Valence Electrons and Energy Levels of Atoms of Elements||Describe outer or valence electrons and their role in chemical reactions.|
|Atomic and Ionic Radii: Trends among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table||Discuss atomic radii patterns on the periodic table.|
|Ionization Energy: Trends among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table||Explain how ionization energy increases and decreases on the periodic table.|
|Electronegativity: Trends among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table||Describe patterns of electronegativity on the periodic table.|
|The Diagonal Relationship, Metallic Character and Boiling Point||Explain the diagonal arrangements found on the periodic table.|
|Transition Metals vs. Main Group Elements: Properties and Differences||Identify the distinguishing features found in transition and main group metals.|
|Classifying Substances by Their Properties||Understand how substances are classified according to their properties, including electrical and thermal conductivity, density, hardness and melting temperature.|
1. Valence Electrons and Energy Levels of Atoms of Elements
The periodic table contains a wealth of information. This lesson will explain how to use it to quickly determine the most useful information about the most important electrons. We will be focusing our discussion on valence electrons and energy levels.
2. Atomic and Ionic Radii: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table
Atoms are VERY tiny. How do we measure their size? This lesson will explain how the size of an atom is measured and teach you how to predict the relative size of an atom based on where it is located on the periodic table.
3. Ionization Energy: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table
Do you know someone who has undergone radiation as a form of cancer treatment? Have you ever thought about why X-rays have health risks? Watch the video to find out what these types of radiation are really doing to atoms, define ionization energy and identify ionization trends on the periodic table.
4. Electronegativity: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table
How is fluorine like a child that doesn't share his or her toys? Find out in this video on electronegativity where we will discuss group and periodic trends among the elements.
5. The Diagonal Relationship, Metallic Character, and Boiling Point
What may have once seemed like a bunch of random squares with letters in them is now shaping up to be one very organized chemistry reference. In this lesson you will discover three other trends that are found on the periodic table: the diagonal relationship, trends in metallic character, and trends in boiling point.
6. Transition Metals vs. Main Group Elements: Properties and Differences
Which is better: to be steadfast and consistent or to be a colorful chameleon? This lesson compares and contrasts the main group elements and the transition metals. Then make your own decision!
7. Classifying Substances by Their Physical Properties
After watching this video, you will be able to explain what physical properties are and use them to classify some common substances. A short quiz will follow.
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