About This Chapter
Personality Development and Theories - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
One of the most intriguing things about humans is our personalities, but why are we all so different? In this chapter, you'll learn about some of the most famous theories on this subject, including those of Freud, Jung, Adler, and Rogers. You'll explore different ways of classifying personalities as well as which traits may be inherited and which may be learned. Many psychologists have come up with their own structure for the self, and you'll hear about some of these and how they're used. After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
- Define id, ego, and superego
- Explain Freud's stages of psychosexual development
- Discuss Carl Jung's theories on archetypes and unconscious
- Understand nomothetic and idiographic personality analysis
- Name different types of selves
|Intro to Personality||Understand the definition of personality, including what traits and states mean in regard to someone's personality.|
|Behavioral Genetics||Explore what traits may be inherited and how psychologists can study the genetic impact on personality through twin studies.|
|Id, Ego, and Superego||Learn Freud's definitions of the parts of the psyche and what each seeks to satisfy.|
|Freudian Defense Mechanisms||Explore ways in which our minds attempt to cope with stress and the four classifications developed by George Vaillant.|
|Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development||Understand the five stages that Freud came up with for the development of personality based on human sexuality.|
|Carl Jung's Personality Theory||Learn about Carl Jung's theories on personality development, including the persona, personal unconscious and collective unconscious, and archetypes.|
|Alfred Adler on Personality||Explore the work of Alfred Adler which focused on feelings of inferiority in respect to personality development.|
|Humanistic Psychology||Learn about Carl Rogers and his work regarding individual potential.|
|Outmoded Approaches to Personality Assessment||Understand some of the first theories of personality development, including the four humors and phrenology.|
|Nomothetic and Idiographic Analysis||Compare two ways of researching traits, from a tendency to generalize to a tendency to specify.|
|Self-Concept, Self-Esteem, and Self-Understanding||Explore the sense of the self and the different types of selves we can have.|
|Temperament||Learn about Mary Rothbart and Jerome Kagan's ways of defining and classifying temperament.|
1. Intro to Personality
You put two people in the same situation and, odds are, they'll react in a range of different ways. Some people might even react in a completely unexpected or extreme way. Why is this? Read this lesson for insight into personality types and what makes people tick the way they do.
2. Types of Studies in Behavioral Genetics: Twin, Family & Adoption
Are you destined to inherit your mother's penchant for collecting old postcards or your father's constant worry that something bad is about to happen? Find out with this lesson, which delves into the world of genetic and environmental behaviors and personality traits.
3. Freud's Theory of the Id, Ego & Superego: Definitions & Examples
Do you know who or what is behind the metaphorical angel and devil sitting on your shoulders, debating whether you should get up for a jog or hit the snooze button again? This lesson examines this type of internal debate by addressing Freud's work on the different sides of our conscious and unconscious selves - the id, the ego, and the superego.
4. Freudian Defense Mechanisms: Definition, Levels & Examples
Do you think that defense mechanisms are what happen in the football field and coping mechanisms are what a team does when the quarterback is injured? Think again. These are just two of the list of Freud's terms used to categorize how we react to life's curve balls. Watch this lesson to get the whole picture.
5. Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development
Among Freud's most notorious theories is his theory of psychosexual development. This lesson discusses each of the stages and traces how he theorized that normal development leads to sexual maturity and how certain stages can develop awry.
6. Carl Jung's Theories: Personality, Psyche & Dreams
In this lesson, we will be discussing Carl Jung's theories. Specifically, we will look at his theories on personality, dream analysis and the human psyche. At the end, you can test your knowledge with a short quiz.
7. Alfred Adler on Personality Development
Psychologists have different opinions about what shapes someone's personality. In this lesson, we'll explore the theories of Alfred Adler, including the effects of inferiority complex, parenting styles, and birth order on personality.
8. Humanistic Psychology & Carl Rogers' Theory of Personality
Do ever wonder about the origins of contemporary therapy practices? This lesson discusses the work of Carl Rogers and how Humanistic Psychology developed into a therapy style that helps us try to find and reach that best version of ourselves.
9. Historical Personality Assessment: Humorism, Phrenology & Physiognomy
Freud wasn't the first person to try to figure out why people do the things they do. All throughout history, scientific and philosophical brainpower have been devoted to figuring out how we end up the way they do. Find out more about the history of the study of personality in this lesson.
10. Researching Personality Traits: Nomothetic and Idiographic Analysis
Personality is what makes us unique. But how should we measure it? In this lesson, we'll examine the two major psychological approaches to personality - the nomothetic approach and the idiographic approach - and how they approach measurement.
11. What Is Self-Esteem? - Definition & How to Improve It
Feeling confident about yourself is called self-esteem. During the end of the 20th century, a self-esteem movement was geared at making children feel good about themselves. But did it work? What really improves a person's self-esteem?
12. Self-Understanding & Self-Concept: How We Perceive Ourselves
Answering the question 'Who am I?' can lead to a solid self-concept and self-understanding. Watch this lesson to find out more about the difference in these two things, as well as the factors that go into each of them.
13. Temperament: Definition & Theories
Some personality traits are with us from birth. In this lesson, we'll examine what temperament is, what it can tell us about how a person is likely to turn out, and look at Jerome Kagan and Mary Rothbart's theories about infant temperament.
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Other chapters within the AP Psychology: Exam Prep course
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