About This Chapter
Personality Development and Theories - Chapter Summary
One of the most intriguing things about humans is our personalities, but why are we all so different? In this chapter, you'll learn about some of the most famous theories on this subject, including those of Freud, Jung, Adler, and Rogers. You'll explore different ways of classifying personalities as well as which traits may be inherited and which may be learned. Many psychologists have come up with their own structure for the self, and you'll hear about some of these and how they're used. After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
- Understand the definition of personality, including what traits and states mean in regard to someone's personality
- Describe humanistic psychology theories, such as that of Carl Rogers and his work regarding individual potential
- Discuss historical personality assessments, including humorism, phrenology, and physiognomy
- Describe Carl Jung's theories on personality development, including the persona, personal unconscious and collective unconscious, and archetypes
- Explain the work of Alfred Adler on feelings of inferiority in respect to personality development.
- Compare and contrast nomothetic and idiographic analyses, two ways of researching traits, from a tendency to generalize to a tendency to specify
- Describe how to choose a personality assessment technique
- Explain the Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT)
- Discuss bias in personality research and assessment
- Understand the impact of culture, religion,and ethnicity on personality
Within this chapter you will find engaging video lessons that distill important information into accessible words and images. By using the rewind/fast forward features you can be sure to spend your time reviewing the information you need most. You can also be certain of your mastery by using the chapter test to validate your learning.
1. Intro to Personality
You put two people in the same situation and, odds are, they'll react in a range of different ways. Some people might even react in a completely unexpected or extreme way. Why is this? Read this lesson for insight into personality types and what makes people tick the way they do.
2. Comparing Personality Theories
In this lesson, we'll go over two of the major psychological perspectives on human personality: theories developed by Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers. We'll also look at the debate between nomothetic and idiographic views of personality.
3. Carl Jung's Theories: Personality, Psyche & Dreams
In this lesson, we will be discussing Carl Jung's theories. Specifically, we will look at his theories on personality, dream analysis and the human psyche. At the end, you can test your knowledge with a short quiz.
4. Alfred Adler on Personality Development
Psychologists have different opinions about what shapes someone's personality. In this lesson, we'll explore the theories of Alfred Adler, including the effects of inferiority complex, parenting styles, and birth order on personality.
5. Humanistic Psychology & Carl Rogers' Theory of Personality
Do ever wonder about the origins of contemporary therapy practices? This lesson discusses the work of Carl Rogers and how Humanistic Psychology developed into a therapy style that helps us try to find and reach that best version of ourselves.
6. Historical Personality Assessment: Humorism, Phrenology & Physiognomy
Freud wasn't the first person to try to figure out why people do the things they do. All throughout history, scientific and philosophical brainpower have been devoted to figuring out how we end up the way they do. Find out more about the history of the study of personality in this lesson.
7. Researching Personality Traits: Nomothetic and Idiographic Analysis
Personality is what makes us unique. But how should we measure it? In this lesson, we'll examine the two major psychological approaches to personality - the nomothetic approach and the idiographic approach - and how they approach measurement.
8. Choosing a Personality Assessment Technique
Choosing and administering personality assessment tests can often be daunting. In this lesson, we will explore methods and criteria for choosing the right assessment for your client, based on his or her needs and what you are trying to determine.
9. What is the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)?
In this lesson, you'll learn about the Thematic Apperception Test: what it is, its purpose, how it has evolved, how it is administered and scored, and its major criticisms as a personality assessment tool.
10. Using the Trait Approach to Assess Personality
Why are people so different from each other? What makes us who we are? How can we assess someone's personality? In this lesson, we'll look at trait theory in psychology and personality assessments that are based on it.
11. Bias in Personality Research & Assessment
One of the trickiest issues in personality research and assessment is the issue of bias. We'll explore common types of bias in personality assessment and discuss their implications.
12. Impact of Culture, Religion & Ethnicity on Personality
This lesson is going to go over the many ways that culture, religion, and ethnicity interplay with someone's personality. Among other things, you'll learn which cultural groups may have more sociable individuals than others.
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Other chapters within the AP Psychology: Exam Prep course
- AP Psychology: History and Development of Modern Psychology
- AP Psychology: Research Methods Used in the Study of Psychology
- AP Psychology: Intelligence Testing
- AP Psychology: Biology in Psychology
- AP Psychology: The 5 Senses & Psychology
- AP Psychology: Sleep and Other States of Consciousness
- AP Psychology: Learning & Conditioning
- AP Psychology: Memory & Cognition
- AP Psychology: Emotion
- AP Psychology: Motivation in Psychology
- AP Psychology: Child Development in Psychology
- AP Psychology: Study of Social Psychology
- AP Psychology: Abnormal Psychology
- AP Psychology: Types of Psychological Disorders
- AP Psychology: Treatment Methods for Psychological Disorders
- AP Psychology: Test Strategy
- AP Psychology Flashcards