About This Chapter
Personality Development and Theories - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Personality refers to an individual's unique behavioral, cognitive and emotional patterns. This chapter will teach you about the theories developed by different psychologists in the field of personality development. You'll also learn about different components of personality and factors that can affect a person's personality development. This chapter will introduce you to:
- Freud's stages of psychosexual development
- Humanistic psychology
- The halo effect
- Methods of personality assessment
- The id, ego and superego
- Behavioral genetics
|Intro to Personality||Learn what constitutes personality|
|Behavioral Genetics||Explore the role genetics plays in behavior|
|Id, Ego and Superego||Learn the characteristics of the id, ego and superego in Freud's structural model of the psyche|
|Freudian Defense Mechanisms||Learn how the unconscious mind comes up with defense mechanisms in order to maintain a person's self-schema|
|Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development||Explore how successful or unsuccessful completion of Freud's stages of psychosexual development contribute to one's personality|
|Carl Jung's Theories: Lesson & Quiz||Look at the contributions Carl Jung made to the field of personality development|
|Alfred Adler on Personality Development||Look at the contributions Alfred Alder made to the field of personality development and explain how feelings of inferiority contribute to personality|
|Humanistic Psychology||Explore the branch of humanistic psychology and learn how an individual achieves self-actualization|
|Outmoded Approaches to Personality Assessment||Look at methods of personality assessment that are now considered to be outmoded or objectionable|
|Researching Personality Traits: Nomothetic and Idiographic Analysis||Contrast the analytical methods of making generalizations about personality (nomothetic) and looking at what makes each of us unique (idiographic)|
|Self-Esteem||Explain the difference between self-esteem and self-concept and look at what research has found to build self-esteem|
|Self-Understanding and Self-Concept||Look at how people develop self-understanding through their social, psychological and physical selves|
|The Halo Effect||Explain how the halo effect affects how people perceive an individual and that person's relationships with others|
|Temperament: Definition & Theories||Explore the perspectives of Jerome Kagan and Mary Rothbart on temperament|
1. Intro to Personality
You put two people in the same situation and, odds are, they'll react in a range of different ways. Some people might even react in a completely unexpected or extreme way. Why is this? Read this lesson for insight into personality types and what makes people tick the way they do.
2. Types of Studies in Behavioral Genetics: Twin, Family & Adoption
Are you destined to inherit your mother's penchant for collecting old postcards or your father's constant worry that something bad is about to happen? Find out with this lesson, which delves into the world of genetic and environmental behaviors and personality traits.
3. Freud's Theory of the Id, Ego & Superego: Definitions & Examples
Do you know who or what is behind the metaphorical angel and devil sitting on your shoulders, debating whether you should get up for a jog or hit the snooze button again? This lesson examines this type of internal debate by addressing Freud's work on the different sides of our conscious and unconscious selves - the id, the ego, and the superego.
4. Freudian Defense Mechanisms: Definition, Levels & Examples
Do you think that defense mechanisms are what happen in the football field and coping mechanisms are what a team does when the quarterback is injured? Think again. These are just two of the list of Freud's terms used to categorize how we react to life's curve balls. Watch this lesson to get the whole picture.
5. Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development
Among Freud's most notorious theories is his theory of psychosexual development. This lesson discusses each of the stages and traces how he theorized that normal development leads to sexual maturity and how certain stages can develop awry.
6. Carl Jung's Theories: Personality, Psyche & Dreams
In this lesson, we will be discussing Carl Jung's theories. Specifically, we will look at his theories on personality, dream analysis and the human psyche. At the end, you can test your knowledge with a short quiz.
7. Alfred Adler on Personality Development
Psychologists have different opinions about what shapes someone's personality. In this lesson, we'll explore the theories of Alfred Adler, including the effects of inferiority complex, parenting styles, and birth order on personality.
8. Humanistic Psychology & Carl Rogers' Theory of Personality
Do ever wonder about the origins of contemporary therapy practices? This lesson discusses the work of Carl Rogers and how Humanistic Psychology developed into a therapy style that helps us try to find and reach that best version of ourselves.
9. Historical Personality Assessment: Humorism, Phrenology & Physiognomy
Freud wasn't the first person to try to figure out why people do the things they do. All throughout history, scientific and philosophical brainpower have been devoted to figuring out how we end up the way they do. Find out more about the history of the study of personality in this lesson.
10. Researching Personality Traits: Nomothetic and Idiographic Analysis
Personality is what makes us unique. But how should we measure it? In this lesson, we'll examine the two major psychological approaches to personality - the nomothetic approach and the idiographic approach - and how they approach measurement.
11. What Is Self-Esteem? - Definition & How to Improve It
Feeling confident about yourself is called self-esteem. During the end of the 20th century, a self-esteem movement was geared at making children feel good about themselves. But did it work? What really improves a person's self-esteem?
12. Self-Understanding & Self-Concept: How We Perceive Ourselves
Answering the question 'Who am I?' can lead to a solid self-concept and self-understanding. Watch this lesson to find out more about the difference in these two things, as well as the factors that go into each of them.
13. The Halo Effect: How Traits Affect Our Judgment
Have you ever noticed that someone who is really nice seems to be prettier? Or that someone who isn't so nice doesn't look so hot? In this lesson, we'll examine the halo effect, examples of where it can be seen in real life, and its opposite: the devil effect.
14. Temperament: Definition & Theories
Some personality traits are with us from birth. In this lesson, we'll examine what temperament is, what it can tell us about how a person is likely to turn out, and look at Jerome Kagan and Mary Rothbart's theories about infant temperament.
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Other chapters within the Psychology: High School course
- History of Modern Psychology
- Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology
- Data Collection in Psychological Research
- Sampling in Psychological Research
- Measurement in Psychological Research
- Statistics in Psychological Research
- Evaluating Research Findings in Psychology
- Biological Bases of Behavior in Psychology
- Sensation & Perception in Psychology
- Motivation & Needs in Psychology
- Emotion in Psychology
- Stress in Psychology
- Basics of Life Span Developmental Psychology
- Theoretical Foundations for Life Span Developmental Psychology
- Biological Development in Psychology
- Sensory & Perceptual Development in Psychology
- Cognitive Development in Psychology
- Physical Development & Psychology
- Social Development in Psychology
- Learning & Conditioning in Psychology
- Memory & Cognition in Psychology
- Intelligence Testing in Psychology
- Sleep & Other States of Consciousness
- Basics of Social Psychology
- Abnormal Psychology Basics
- Theories of Abnormal Psychology
- Abnormal Disorders in Psychology
- Treatment of Psychological Disorders
- Legal and Ethical Issues in Psychology