About This Chapter
Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids in Chemistry - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
This chapter describes the phase changes that occur in liquids, which have a fixed volume and an indefinite shape, and solids, which have both a distinct volume and shape. You'll learn how these changes are dictated by pressure and temperature, either man-made or nature based, and how they can lead to freezing and melting, among other chemical activities. The instructor will also provide you with a scientific drawing lesson, and show you how to create phase diagrams.
Through the use of easy-to-follow visuals, you'll be able to see how energy is involved in phase changes, including those that occur when liquids are converted into gases and solids. The instructor will also discuss the critical states of matter, which refer to the absence of phase boundaries. Triple points on a phase diagram will be covered, including how the different phases of a chemical substance (liquid, solid and gas) can exist in a stable thermodynamic state. When you've completed this chapter, you should:
- Understand how kinetic molecular theory can be used to describe the spaces between particles and the unique properties of solids and liquids
- Know what is meant by critical point, triple point and phase boundaries
- Be able to diagram the limits of stability in a phase change
- Understand the six different types of phase changes, including condensation, freezing and melting
- Know what is meant by the heat of fusion, and explain how solids absorb heat
- Understand the heat of vaporization and how pressure can transform liquids into gasses
- Be familiar with the special atomic or molecular structures found in crystallized liquids and solids
- Know what is meant by the unit cell of a crystal
|The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Properties of Solids and Liquids||Use kinetic molecular theory to explain the movement of particles and how they account for the properties found in liquids and solids.|
|Phase Diagrams: Critical Point, Triple Point and Phase Equilibrium Boundaries||Understand phase diagrams, and use them to illustrate phase equilibrium boundaries, triple point and critical point.|
|Phase Change: Evaporation, Condensation, Freezing, Melting, Sublimation and Deposition||Describe the processes of condensation, evaporation, freezing and melting.|
|Heat of Fusion and Vaporization||Define and compare the heat of fusion and the heat of vaporization.|
|Phase Diagram for Water||Understand the differences between phase diagrams for water and other substances.|
|Crystal Structures and the Unit Cell||Discuss the different types of crystal structures and their unit cells.|
1. The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Properties of Solids and Liquids
This lesson explores the kinetic molecular theory and how it pertains to the properties of solids and liquids. You'll learn the properties of solids and liquids, discover the types of intermolecular attractions that occur between them and gain an understanding how phase changes happen.
2. Phase Diagrams: Critical Point, Triple Point and Phase Equilibrium Boundaries
Learn what a phase diagram is and how to interpret phase diagrams. Discover how to use a phase diagram to locate the phase equilibrium boundaries. Also, learn what a triple point and critical point are and how to locate them on a phase diagram.
3. Phase Change: Evaporation, Condensation, Freezing, Melting, Sublimation & Deposition
Substances on Earth can exist in one of four phases, but mostly, they exist in one of three: solid, liquid or gas. Learn the six changes of phase: freezing, melting, condensation, vaporization, sublimation and deposition.
4. Heat of Fusion & Heat of Vaporization: Definitions & Equations
When a substance changes states, like from a solid to a liquid, a lot is happening. This lesson will examine the heat of fusion and the heat of vaporization. It will also explain both formulas.
5. Phase Diagram of Water vs Other Substances: Differences & Meaning
Phase diagrams give scientists specific information about how phase changes occur at different pressures and temperatures. This lesson examines phase diagrams, focusing on water and how it's a little different from most other substances.
6. Crystal Structures and the Unit Cell
This crystallography lesson explores the structure and properties of crystals. You'll learn about the parts of a crystal structure, types of crystals and patterns created by unit cells.
7. Supersaturated Solution: Definition & Example
In this lesson, we'll be learning about supersaturated solutions. Here, you'll learn what a supersaturated solution is and how it is made. Then we'll look at some examples.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the DSST Principles of Physical Science: Study Guide & Test Prep course
- Newton's Laws of Motion
- Energy and Momentum
- Thermodynamics in Physical Science
- Waves and Optics
- Electric Power & Electricity
- Properties of Matter in Chemistry
- Kinetics in Chemistry
- Elements, Compounds, Mixtures & Solutions
- Bonding in Chemistry
- Gases & Gas Laws
- The Periodic Table
- Atomic Theory and Atomic Structure
- Acids, Bases and Reactions in Chemistry
- Chemistry Lab Basics
- DSST Informational Resources
- DSST Principles of Physical Science Flashcards