About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering high school physical science material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn high school physical science. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding types of bonds, their structure and function
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about chemical bonding
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Physical Science - Understanding Chemical Bonding chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Physical Science - Understanding Chemical Bonding chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any chemical bonding question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a chemical bonding unit of a standard high school physical science course. Topics covered include:
- Covalent bonds and compounds
- Ionic bonds
- Polar covalent bonds
- Hydrogen bonds
- The octet rule and Lewis structures
- Predictions of formation, change and formulas for ions
- Formation, lattice energy and properties of ionic compounds
- Names and formulas for ionic compounds
- VSEPR theory and polarity of molecules
- Strong and weak intermolecular forces
- Use of orbital hybridization and valence bond theory to predict molecular shape
- Molecular orbital theory
- Metallic bonding
- Intramolecular bonding and identification of organic and inorganic macromolecules
- Organic molecules
- Functional groups of organic molecules
1. Chemical Bonds I: Covalent
Mom always said that sharing is caring. This lesson will explore how electrons affect the chemical reactivity of atoms and specifically the merits of sharing electrons.
2. Chemical Bonds II: Ionic
Did you know that the scientific name for table salt is sodium chloride? Find out how sodium and chlorine atoms come together to form your favorite seasoning.
3. Chemical Bonds III: Polar Covalent
Are you confused about how you can tell what kind of bond two atoms will form? This lesson will help you understand the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds as well as how to predict how two atoms will interact.
4. Chemical Bonds IV: Hydrogen
This lesson defines and discusses important concepts behind hydrogen bonding. You'll learn when and why these bonds occur and which atoms are often involved.
5. The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms
Learn the octet rule and how it applies to electron energy levels. Identify valence electrons and learn how to determine them by looking at the periodic table. Also, discover how they pertain to the octet rule. Learn how to draw the Lewis diagram of an atom, and understand how it provides clues to chemical bonding.
6. Ions: Predicting Formation, Charge, and Formulas of Ions
Learn how ions are formed using the octet rule. Use the periodic table to predict the charge an atom will have when it becomes an ion. Learn whether an ion is a cation or anion and how to write the formula depending on what charge the ion has.
7. Ionic Compounds: Formation, Lattice Energy and Properties
In this lesson, you'll learn about ionic compounds and how they form. Additionally, you'll learn the properties of ionic compounds, such as their high melting and boiling points, their ability to conduct electricity, and the fact that they form crystals.
8. Naming Ionic Compounds: Simple Binary, Transition Metal & Polyatomic Ion Compounds
An important part of dealing with chemical compounds is knowing how to refer to them. Learn how to name all ionic compounds, including simple binary compounds, compounds containing transition metals and compounds containing polyatomic ions.
9. Covalent Compounds: Properties, Naming & Formation
Learn about covalent bonds, how covalent compounds are formed and the properties inherent to covalent compounds, such as low melting and boiling points, in this lesson. Also, learn what rules to follow to name simple covalent compounds.
10. Lewis Structures: Single, Double & Triple Bonds
Review what a Lewis dot diagram is and discover how to draw a Lewis dot structural formula for compounds. Learn how to represent single, double and triple bonds with lines instead of dots. Also, learn how compounds arrange themselves.
11. Lewis Dot Structures: Polyatomic Ions
This lesson defines Lewis dot structures and explains how to draw them for molecules in step-by-step detail. We'll also explore polyatomic ions and how to draw Lewis dot structures for them.
12. Lewis Dot Structures: Resonance
In this lesson, we'll review Lewis dot structures and how to draw them. Then, learn about resonance and resonance structures for molecules and polyatomic ions. Afterwards, assess your new knowledge with a quiz.
13. Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character
Learn about covalent bonds and their two types: nonpolar covalent bonds and polar covalent bonds. Discover how to predict the type of bond that will form based on the periodic table. Learn what ionic character means and how to determine it.
14. VSEPR Theory & Molecule Shapes
In this lesson, you'll learn about the VSEPR theory and how it can be used to explain molecule shapes. Then, learn how to predict the shape of a molecule by applying the VSEPR theory to the Lewis dot structure.
15. Dipoles & Dipole Moments: Molecule Polarity
Learn about dipoles and dipole moments in this lesson. Understand the relationship between dipole moments and molecule polarity, and learn how to determine if a molecule is polar or nonpolar.
16. Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole & Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces
Learn about intermolecular vs. intramolecular forces. Learn the different intermolecular bonds (including hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole and ion-dipole forces), their strengths, and their effects on properties, such as boiling and melting points, solubility, and evaporation.
17. London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces
Learn how London dispersion forces are created and what effect they have on properties such as boiling and melting points. Discover this weak intermolecular force and how it is one of the Van der Waals forces.
18. Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape
You'll learn how to explain how shapes of molecules can be predicted using valence bond theory and hybridization. When finished, you'll understand the difference between sigma and pi bonds and how the VSEPR theory, along with the hybridization theory, helps predict the shape of a molecule.
19. Molecular Orbital Theory: Tutorial and Diagrams
Learn how to sketch the overlap of orbitals to form sigma and pi bonds. Use the molecular orbital theory to determine bond order. Discover how bond order affects bond strength and bond energy.
20. Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model & Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors
Learn why metallic bonding is called the electron sea model. Discover why metals bond the way they do and why they are shiny, malleable and conduct electricity well.
21. Intramolecular Bonding and Identification of Organic and Inorganic Macromolecules
Understand what a macromolecule is and be able to identify both organic and inorganic macromolecules. Organic molecules include proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids.
22. Organic Molecules: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Isomers
Learn more about carbon and hydrogen and see how these atoms come together to form distinct molecules. Also, study the difference between saturated and unsaturated molecules.
23. Functional Groups in Organic Molecules
Learn what an organic compound is and how their functional groups affect them. Identify the different types of functional groups including alcohols, alkyl halides, ketones, aldehydes, ethers, carboxylic acids and esters.
24. Ammonium Nitrate: Uses & Formula
Ammonium nitrate is a chemical substance with various industrial uses that we encounter more often than we think. In this lesson, we will discuss the formula of ammonium nitrate, as well as its uses.
25. Decane: Structure, Uses & Formula
A molecule that stretches to be 10 carbon atoms in length, decane is found in a variety of commercial solvents. Would you like to learn how to draw the decane structure? Continue reading to learn about this molecule, its structure and formula.
26. Glycosidic Linkage: Definition & Overview
Have you ever wondered what type of bond is used to link molecules, such as sugar, together? Explore this lesson to understand what a glycosidic bond is, its many forms, and importance in everyday living.
27. The Hydrogen Bomb: Definition, Explosion & Facts
Did you know that an uncontrolled chemical chain reaction produces a hydrogen bomb? Learn about the history behind developing this bomb, key facts, and why it is so explosive.
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Other chapters within the High School Physical Science: Help and Review course
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- The Atom & Atomic Structure: Physical Science Help & Review
- Physical Science - The Periodic Table: Help and Review
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- Physical Science - Volcanoes: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Earthquakes: Help and Review
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