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- Explore covalent, ionic, hydrogen and polar covalent chemical bonds
- Learn to apply the octet rule
- Describe the formation and charge of ions and ionic compounds
- Identify ionic compounds by name and write their formulas
- Study the formation of covalent compounds
- Illustrate Lewis structures with single, double and triple bonds
- Draw Lewis dot structures of resonance and polyatomic ions
- Learn to use the periodic table
- Use VSPER to predict the shape of molecules
- Study dipoles and dipole moments, and describe the process of hydrogen bonding
- Explore London dispersion forces, valence bond theory and molecular orbital theory
- Explain metallic and intramolecular bonding
- Identify organic molecules and their functional groups
1. Chemical Bonds I: Covalent
A covalent bond occurs when two atoms share electrons. Learn about chemical bonding, explore how covalent bonds are made, discover valence electrons, and review molecule structure.
2. Chemical Bonds II: Ionic
Ionic bonds are electrostatic interactions between two oppositely charged ions. Learn about chemical bonding and how ionic bonds form, discover the properties of electronegativity, and review examples of elements containing ionic bonds.
3. Chemical Bonds III: Polar Covalent
A polar covalent bond occurs when two atoms share electrons in an unequal manner. Learn about chemical bonding, how polar covalent bonds form, the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds, and explore the effects of partial changes.
4. Chemical Bonds IV: Hydrogen
Hydrogen bonds are electrostatic interactions that occur when a hydrogen atom binds to an electronegative atom. Learn about chemical bonding, explore how hydrogen bonds form, discover the differences between intramolecular forces and intermolecular forces, then review an example of how these bonds are used.
5. The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms
The octet rule and the Lewis dot structure both provide valuable insight into the organization of an atom's valence electrons. Explore the intricacies of the octet rule and learn about the Lewis structures of atoms.
6. Ions: Predicting Formation, Charge, and Formulas of Ions
The octet rule explains how ions are formed. Learn about this rule and use it to predict an ion's formation, charge, and formula, and also understand the role of cations and anions in this process.
7. Ionic Compounds: Formation, Lattice Energy and Properties
Most of the Earth's rocks and minerals are ionic compounds. Learn the definition of an ionic compound, explore its formation and properties, and discover how lattice energy makes iconic compounds stronger.
8. Naming Ionic Compounds: Simple Binary, Transition Metal & Polyatomic Ion Compounds
An important part of dealing with chemical compounds is knowing how to refer to them. Learn how to name all ionic compounds, including simple binary compounds, compounds containing transition metals and compounds containing polyatomic ions.
9. Covalent Compounds: Properties, Naming & Formation
Covalent compounds are formed when two nonmetal atoms create a covalent bond by sharing valence electrons. Learn about the formation of covalent compounds, the properties and naming of covalent compounds, and the role of valence electrons in the formation of covalent bonds.
10. Lewis Structures: Single, Double & Triple Bonds
Review what a Lewis dot diagram is and discover how to draw a Lewis dot structural formula for compounds. Learn how to represent single, double and triple bonds with lines instead of dots. Also, learn how compounds arrange themselves.
11. Lewis Dot Structures: Polyatomic Ions
Just as the Lewis dot structure can visualize molecules, it can also visualize polyatomic ions, which are ions containing multiple atoms. Explore the actions of polyatomic ions and learn how to visualize them through the lens of the Lewis dot structure.
12. Lewis Dot Structures: Resonance
Lewis dot structures are diagrams of atoms and valence electrons as they are arranged in a molecule. Review Lewis dot structures and the steps for drawing them, then examine the concept of resonance and resonance structures of Lewis dot structures.
13. Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character
A covalent bond occurs when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. Learn about the two types of covalent bonds--nonpolar and polar--and understand how to predict bond polarity. Explore electronegativity and ionic character and recognize the difference between covalent and ionic bonds.
14. VSEPR Theory & Molecule Shapes
The VSEPR theory tells us that molecules take on regular and unique shapes because valence electrons push each other away. Using this theory, you can determine what shape a molecule will take in three-dimensional space, including both electron domain geometry and molecular geometry.
15. Dipoles & Dipole Moments: Molecule Polarity
Dipoles and dipole moments occur when electrons are shared unevenly by atoms. Explore the world of molecule polarity, defining covalent bonds, electronegativity, dipoles, and dipole moments, learning how to find a dipole moment, and distinguishing between polar and nonpolar molecules.
16. Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole & Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces
Hydrogen bonds are a critical part of many chemical processes, and they help determine the properties of things necessary for life, such as water and protein. Explore hydrogen bonds, as well as dipole-dipole forces, ion-dipole forces, strong intermolecular forces, and intramolecular forces. Understand the effects that intermolecular forces have on certain molecules' properties.
17. London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces
Learn how London dispersion forces are created and what effect they have on properties such as boiling and melting points. Discover this weak intermolecular force and how it is one of the Van der Waals forces.
18. Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape
Hybridization is the process of mixing two or more atomic orbitals to create new covalently bonded orbitals in molecules. However, hybrid orbitals and pure atomic orbitals have different molecular shapes. Learn about orbital hybridization theory, valence bond theory, the difference between sigma and pi bonds, and how to predict the molecular shape of atomic orbitals.
19. Molecular Orbital Theory: Tutorial and Diagrams
The bonds between atoms in molecules have different shapes, sizes, and strengths depending on which atoms are bonded together. Learn how to apply molecular orbital theory to determine the shapes of bonded orbitals, recognize molecular orbital diagrams, calculate bond order, and determine relative bond strength.
20. Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model & Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors
Metallic bonding is known as the electron-sea model. Learn about metallic bonding with an explanation of the unique properties of metals, and understand why metals are good electrical conductors.
21. Intramolecular Bonding and Identification of Organic and Inorganic Macromolecules
Macromolecules are large molecules made up of monomers that come in two forms, including organic, which includes lipids and proteins, and inorganic, like rubber and diamond. Explore intramolecular bonding and identification of organic and inorganic macromolecules.
22. Organic Molecules: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Isomers
Organic molecules are comprised of carbon atoms that are covalently bonded with other atoms, such as hydrogen. Learn about organic molecules, the difference between saturated and unsaturated molecules, and how carbon and hydrogen can form different combinations of molecules.
23. Functional Groups in Organic Molecules
Organic molecules have functional groups that determine their classification. Explore the functional groups of organic molecules, including alcohols, alkyl halides, ketones, aldehydes, ethers, carboxylic acids, and esters, and discover the characteristics and formulas that apply to each group.
24. Butane: Definition, Properties & Formula
Butane is a flammable alkane gas that is commonly bottled and used as fuel. Learn about butane's chemical background, structure, formula, and properties.
25. Hydroxide: Definition & Formula
Hydroxides are commonly used chemistry. In this lesson, you will learn the definition of hydroxide as well as the type of notation chemists use to describe its chemical formula. Afterward, test your knowledge with a brief quiz.
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