About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering high school physical science material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn high school physical science. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding and describing types of reactions or theories related to the atom and atomic structure
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about the atom and atomic structure
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Understanding the Atom and Atomic Structure chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Understanding the Atom and Atomic Structure chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any atom and atomic structure question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in an atom and atomic structure unit of a standard high school physical science course. Topics covered include:
- The atom
- Atomic number and mass number
- Early atomic theory
- Isotopes and related average atomic mass
- Electron configurations for atomic energy levels
- Rules of atomic structures
- The law of conservation of mass
- Diamagnetism and paramagnetism
- Four quantum numbers
- The de Broglie hypothesis
- Ionic bonds
- Process of building compounds and molecules from elements
- Polar and nonpolar covalent bonds
- Use of atoms and ions to determine molecular formulas
- Definition and functions of elements
1. The Atom
Tune into this lesson to find out what matters about matter. What exactly is an atom? And, how do the atoms that make up the elements in the periodic table differ from one another?
2. Atomic Number and Mass Number
Atoms are the basic building blocks of everything around you. In order to really understand how atoms combine to form molecules, it's necessary to be familiar with their structure. In this lesson, we'll dissect atoms so we can see just what really goes into those little building blocks of matter.
3. Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan
Imagine firing a bullet at a piece of tissue paper and having it bounce back at you! You would probably be just as surprised as Rutherford when he discovered the nucleus. In this lesson, we are going to travel back in time and discuss some of the major discoveries in the history of the atom.
4. Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass
When you drink a glass of water, you are actually drinking a combination of heavy water and light water. What's the difference? Is it harmful? This video will explain the difference between the two types of water and go into detail on the significance of the different isotopes of elements.
5. Electron Configurations in Atomic Energy Levels
This lesson will explain what the electrons are doing inside the atom. Tune in to find out how we specify where they are located and how this location description will help us predict an element's properties.
6. Atomic Structures: Pauli Exclusion Principle, Aufbau Principle & Hund's Rule
This lesson discusses the three main rules that govern how electrons fit in the atomic structure by filling the shells, subshells, and orbitals. We will also review the basics of quantum numbers before learning these principles.
7. The Law of Conservation of Mass: Definition, Equation & Examples
Read about the law of conservation of mass, its role in chemistry, and its importance in the universe. Learn the equation, review examples, and test your knowledge of the material with a short quiz.
8. Diamagnetism & Paramagnetism: Definition & Explanation
In this lesson, we learn more about electron configuration through the concepts of diamagnetism and paramagnetism. We will review electron structure in an atom, and define diamagnetism and paramagnetism.
9. Four Quantum Numbers: Principal, Angular Momentum, Magnetic & Spin
Each electron inside of an atom has its own 'address' that consists of four quantum numbers that communicate a great deal of information about that electron. In this lesson, we will be defining each quantum number and explaining how to write a set of quantum numbers for a specific electron.
10. The de Broglie Hypothesis: Definition & Significance
The de Broglie hypothesis states that particles of matter can behave as both waves and particles, just like light. In this lesson, we'll learn the basics of the de Broglie hypothesis and how it related to other theories released at the same time.
11. Ionic Bonds: Definitions and Examples
Did you know that when atoms stick together to form molecules, they gain and lose electrons, making them negatively or positively charged? In this lesson, you will learn how cations and anions form one type of chemical bond called an ionic bond.
12. How Compounds and Molecules Are Built From Elements
Did you know that elements are like people and have different personalities? A few elements are very shy and love to be left alone. Others are very social and prefer to hang out with friends. In this lesson we will discuss how elements build molecules and compounds.
13. Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds: Definitions and Examples
Did you know that some types of chemical bonds behave similarly to the way that children play with toys? In this lesson, you will learn about two types of bonds called polar and nonpolar covalent bonds.
14. Using Atoms and Ions to Determine Molecular Formulas
In this lesson, you will learn how atoms and ions determine molecular formulas. You will understand how molecular formulas tell information about the type and quantity of atoms involved in a molecule. Lastly, we will discuss how to write a molecular formula for an ionic compound.
15. What Are Elements?
Look around you. What do you see? Elements are everywhere. They are the building blocks of all matter on Earth. In this lesson, we will discuss what an element is, how elements are written as symbols, and how elements are the building blocks of all matter.
16. Atomic Theory: Definition, History & Timeline
Imagine developing a concept without any physical evidence or laws to guide your theory! Early atomic theory relied solely on observation, hypothesis and experimentation. Let's visit some of the scientists and discoveries leading to what we know today.
17. J.J. Thomson: Biography, Facts & Atomic Theory
J.J. Thomson's theories, models, and discoveries relating to electrons and the atomic model of the atom impact our understanding of chemistry today. Below we will explore his life, his discoveries, and his model of the atom.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the High School Physical Science: Help and Review course
- Physical Science - Understanding Matter: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Understanding Gases: Help and Review
- Physical Science - The Periodic Table: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Understanding Chemical Bonding: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Understanding Solutions: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Stoichiometry: Help and Review
- Help & Review for Chemical Reactions, Acids & Bases in Physical Science
- Physical Science - Atomic and Nuclear Physics: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Understanding Motion: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Force, Motion, and Newton's Laws: Help and Review
- Energy, Power, Work & Thermodynamics: Help & Review
- Physical Science - Waves, Sound, and Light: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Electricity: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Thermal Physics: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Magnetism: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Intro to Organic Chemistry: Help and Review
- Physical Science - The Universe: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Atmospheric Science: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Geologic Time: Help and Review
- The Earth's Internal Structure: Physical Science Help & Review
- Physical Science - Plate Tectonics: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Minerals and Rocks: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Igneous Rocks: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Sedimentary Rocks - A Deeper Look: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Metamorphic Rocks - A Deeper Look: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Volcanoes: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Earthquakes: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Weathering and Erosion: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Water Balance: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Ground Water: Help and Review
- Physical Science - Coastal Hazards: Help and Review