About This Chapter
The Circulatory, Respiratory, Digestive, Excretory, and Musculoskeletal Systems
With living systems, the sum is greater than its parts. The coordinated, cooperative processes that keep us in working condition are miracles within miracles, and physiology traces the functions and inner workings of these systems. We'll start with animal tissue types to keep it together before venturing into other systems.
The ebb and flow of our lifeblood is covered under circulatory systems, and we'll investigate the differences between open and closed systems. We'll learn the secrets of the heart, whether it be two-chambered or four-chambered. You'll find that if you were to lay the human network of blood vessels end to end, you'd have to travel 62,000 miles; our lessons constitute a much shorter but informative journey. You'll also see the benefits of indoor plumbing in a whole new way as we trace the pathways and purposes of arteries, veins, capillaries and more.
Red blood cells with hemoglobin help transport oxygen through vessels, but how does it reach the rest of the body? You'll explore gas exchange and how it's managed by the respiratory system from the larynx to the lungs. Speaking of lungs, the combined inner surface area of your two lungs is roughly equal to that of a full-size tennis court. Now, that may be hard to swallow, but luckily, you have a exquisitely-designed digestive system that can take it from there. Digestion, egestion, ingestion - you can have it all as we journey through the gastrointestinal tract with as little mess as possible.
Of course we couldn't forget about the noble excretory system, which eliminates waste, avoids excess and maintains a healthy balance. Finally, we'll keep you moving with the musculoskeletal system as we work through skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles.
1. Multicellular Organisms, Tissues and Epithelium
In this lesson on multicellular organisms, you'll take a look at what it actually means to be multicellular and how cells are organized into tissues, organs, and organ systems. This lesson also covers one of the four main tissue types: epithelial tissue.
2. Types of Connective Tissue
In this lesson, you'll learn about the various types of connective tissues in the body. These tissues include bone, fat, cartilage and blood. They form the framework of the body, support organs and much, much more!
3. Skeletal System and Muscular System
Do you know how many bones are in the human body? Check out this video lesson to uncover the answer, as well as understand the role and importance of the skeletal and muscular systems.
4. Circulatory System I: Types of Circulatory Systems
From cnidarians to humans, all animals need a circulatory system to absorb nutrients and get rid of waste. Find out why different kinds of animals have different systems, and see what a closed circulatory system and indoor plumbing have in common.
5. Circulatory System II: The Human Vascular System
In this lesson, learn all about the operation of the human vascular system. What are the different types of blood vessels? How does blood flow through the human body? How does the system adapt to your body changing?
6. Circulatory System III: The Heart
What purpose does the heart serve? And how do different types of hearts function? In this lesson, you'll learn about two, three and four-chambered hearts.
7. Circulatory System IV: Red Blood Cells
Why don't mature red blood cells have nuclei or mitochondria, and how do these guys squeeze through capillaries? While learning about the brief but glorious lives of red blood cells, you'll also see which characteristics help them transport oxygen and carbon dioxide to other cells.
8. Circulatory System V: Hemoglobin
Did you ever wonder how red blood cells can store enough oxygen to supply the entire human body? Join us in this lesson on hemoglobin to learn why red blood cells are so good at transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide. This lesson will make you see red (as well as blue and purple-maroon)!
9. Gas Exchange in the Human Respiratory System
Did you know that the average human lung has a respiratory surface area that is roughly the same size as half of a tennis court? Believe it or not, that's how much surface area an active, healthy human needs to ensure that the body gets plenty of oxygen.
10. Heterotrophs: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, you will learn about organisms that are not able to provide their own food and must eat other organisms to survive. Heterotrophs must consume other living material, which provides the energy they need to live.
11. Digestive System I: The Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
Did you know that there are digestive enzymes in your saliva? It's true. As soon as you put a piece of food in your mouth, the digestive process begins. Join us with this first of two lessons about the human digestive system, where we'll follow food through the upper gastrointestinal tract from the mouth through the stomach.
12. Digestive System II: The Lower Gastrointestinal Tract
The lower gastrointestinal tract is the part of the digestive system that is responsible for the last part of food digestion and the expulsion of waste from the body. In this lesson, we'll look at each part of the system and what functions each serves in the process of digestion.
13. Excretory System
Each year in the U.S., close to 400,000 people with kidney failure undergo dialysis treatment in order to remove waste, remove excess fluid and restore electrolyte balance. Kidneys, the workhorses of the excretory system, perform these same functions more effectively than any machine. In this lesson, we'll talk about how the excretory system removes toxic substances from the body.
14. What is Respiration? - Definition, Process & Equation
Respiration is a metabolic process common to all living things. Here, you will learn the definition, location, processes, and formula for cellular respiration. At the end, you can test your knowledge with a short quiz.
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Other chapters within the CLEP Biology: Study Guide & Test Prep course
- Scientific Principles
- Review of Inorganic Chemistry For Biologists
- Introduction to Organic Chemistry
- Cell Biology
- How Enzymes Work
- Basics of DNA & RNA
- Process of DNA Replication
- The Transcription and Translation Process
- Basics of Gene Mutations
- Basics of Metabolic Biochemistry
- Overview of Cell Division
- Plant Biology
- Plant Reproduction and Growth
- Physiology II: The Nervous, Immune, and Endocrine Systems
- Animal Reproduction and Development
- Biology of Genetics
- Principles of Ecology
- Speciation & Evolution
- The Origin and History of Life On Earth
- Phylogeny and the Classification of Organisms
- Social Biology
- Analyzing Scientific Data