About This Chapter
Physiology II: The Nervous and Endocrine Systems - Chapter Summary
Discover or strengthen your understanding of how the nervous and endocrine systems in the human body work with help from the fun lessons in this chapter. Watch entertaining videos developed by top instructors to enhance your understanding of how these systems are structured and function. Also, learn about the conditions that could affect these systems and ways to treat them. Each lesson is accompanied by a short quiz you can use to assess your understanding of these physiology concepts. Lesson topic questions can be submitted to our experts. Once you've completed this chapter, you will understand:
- Basics of homeostasis, glucose levels and how temperature is regulated in humans
- How the nervous system functions and neurons are structured and function
- The way the brain and central and peripheral nervous systems are structured and function
- How innate immunity and acquired immunity are defined
- What are types of antibiotics and vaccines
- Why and how flu viruses, HIV and immune system evasion impact the body
- How the body can be impacted by pathogens, antibiotic resistance and virulence
1. Homeostasis and Temperature Regulation in Humans
Do you wonder how your body is able to maintain a consistent temperature? Have you ever questioned why you get goosebumps when you're cold? This lesson will introduce you to homeostasis and answer your questions about body temperature regulation and reactions, like goosebumps.
2. Homeostasis of Glucose Levels: Hormonal Control and Diabetes
In this lesson, we'll look at how the body uses hormones to maintain homeostasis of blood glucose levels, what happens in people who have diabetes, and how diabetics can manage their disease.
3. Functions of the Nervous System
In this lesson, we'll watch Timmy as he plays in his backyard. Watch what happens when he tries to catch a butterfly, hears a mean dog bark, and scrapes his knee. All of Timmy's reactions are tied to his nervous system. For a full explanation of what goes on in the human nervous system, check out the video!
4. The Structure and Function of Neurons
In this video lesson, you'll learn about neurons, which are specialized cells in the nervous system. Check out how far neurons can send signals throughout the body and how depolarization is much like 'the wave' at a football game.
5. The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems
Did you know that hammerhead sharks and platypuses share a special type of sensory neuron that humans and most other animals don't have? In this lesson, you'll find out what that sensory neuron and a whole lot of others can do. You'll also learn how the nervous system is organized and the differences between the central and peripheral nervous systems.
6. Parts of the Brain
Is there a way to easily remember the many parts of the brain? Don't be afraid of all these complex terms; this lesson outlines some easy and fun phrases to help you memorize the brain's anatomy. Let's take a look.
7. Innate Immunity: Inflammation, Neutrophils & Natural Killer Cells
You might already know how your body handles known infectious agents but how about unknown? Watch this video to explore your innate immune system - your body's defense against new bacteria and viruses.
8. Acquired Immunity: T Cells, B Cells and Antibodies
Have you ever wondered why some people don't ever seem to get sick? These people likely have an acquired immunity. Learn more about the immune system and how exposure to an illness one time can help your body to prevent that illness from ever occurring again.
9. Antibiotics and Vaccines
Do you know why children must get regularly vaccinated? Have you ever wondered how an antibiotic works and why they are so widely prescribed? If so, this lesson will help you to understand how changes in medicine have almost eliminated several deadly diseases and added decades to the average person's lifespan.
10. Flu Viruses, HIV and Immune System Evasion
Why is it that our immune systems can protect us from some viruses but not others? We've eradicated smallpox by using vaccines, so why do influenza and HIV remain such dangerous health risks? In this lesson about viruses, we'll explore these questions and learn how influenza and HIV continue to evade the human immune system.
11. Pathogens: Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence
Find out more about how the overuse of antibiotics could lead to some serious problems with epidemics or untreatable diseases in the future. You can also discover some of the things that make pathogens harmful and why pathogens don't cause disease in every species they infect.
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Other chapters within the Biology 101: Intro to Biology course
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- Reproduction, Development & Survival in Animals
- Mendelian Genetics & Mechanisms of Heredity
- Ecology Principles & Community Ecology
- Evolutionary Principles & Natural Selection
- Earth's Timeline & Geological Evolution
- Taxonomic Classification & Phylogeny
- Genetic Engineering & DNA Sequencing
- Studying for Biology 101