About This Chapter
Plant Biology Foundations - Chapter Summary
In this chapter, you can study the classification, structures, functions and growth cycles of vascular and nonvascular plants. You can learn about the tissues found in the stems, leaves and root systems, how root systems grow and develop, and much more.
These short, yet informative lessons hold your interest while providing you with a powerful study tool that you can access whenever you wish. Our convenient online format allows you to study in any location and from any device that offers Internet access, so you can take your work with you even when you travel. Quizzes and a chapter test provide self-assessment, while our instructors and subject-area experts ensure that help is as close as your computer mouse. These lessons cover the following topics:
- Monocot, dicot, vascular and nonvascular plants
- Composition of stems, roots and leaves
- Growth of root systems
- Function and structure of male and female flower parts
- Annual, biennial and perennial plant growth cycles
1. Classification of Vascular, Nonvascular, Monocot & Dicot Plants
Plants may not seem like the most interesting things around, but they are definitely useful. In this lesson, we will explore the basic classification of plants and the unique characteristics of each group.
2. Structure of Plant Stems: Vascular and Ground Tissue
You can determine the age of a tree by looking at its rings. In this lesson, we will look at the basic structures of stems and explore what causes the rings in a tree trunk.
3. Structure of Leaves: The Epidermis, Palisade and Spongy Layers
Leaves may look pretty in the fall when they are changing colors, but they also provide many necessary functions for plants. In this lesson, we will explore the structures and functions of leaves.
4. Primary Root Tissue, Root Hairs and the Plant Vascular Cylinder
Roots of plants can provide support, food and water. We will look at diagrams and photos to see the different parts of roots in order to explain these different functions.
5. Root System Growth: The Root Cap, Primary Roots & Lateral Roots
It is easy to see some plants get taller, but it is important to know that plants must also have a strong support that we cannot always see. Root growth helps plants survive and can happen in two ways.
6. Flowers: Structure and Function of Male & Female Components
In this lesson, we'll look at the parts of a flower and learn their functions. These natural beauties provide indispensable services to the plants they adorn.
7. Seasonal Growth Cycles: Perennial, Annual and Biennial Plants
We continue to grow and change throughout our entire lives, living through many seasons and years. Plants have different patterns of growth and development regarding seasons, which we will look at in this lesson.
8. What is Plant Physiology? - Definition & Experiments
Plants are enjoyed by many people - in our homes, on our tables as foods, and in hundreds of products we use every day. In this lesson, we will explore how plant physiology helps us to understand the many functions and behaviors of plants.
9. Xylem: The Effect of Transpiration and Cohesion on Function
Roots absorb water and leaves release water, but how does water move up a plant? In this lesson, we will look at how this happens in vascular plants, including the importance of xylem, cohesion and transpiration in the process.
10. Phloem: The Pressure Flow Hypothesis of Food Movement
Leaves produce sugars and stems; roots and fruits use these sugars for energy. In this lesson, we will look at how these sugars move throughout vascular plants, including the importance of phloem and the pressure flow hypothesis in the process.
11. Cytokinins in Plants: Function & Concept
Plants rely on hormones for many of their life processes just like humans. In this lesson, we will examine a group of hormones known as cytokinins to see how plants use them.
12. Lateral Meristem: Definition & Concept
Plants, like humans, need to grow! Discover how plants accomplish this and learn about the parts of the plants that are most affected by this process. When you are through, test your new knowledge with a short quiz.
13. Plant Photoreceptors: Definition, Types & Function
Can plants tell time? How do they know when it's sunny out? Photoreceptors are specialized cells that communicate this information to plants, which in turn helps them know when to make energy from sunlight as well as when and how to grow.
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