About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering college biology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn college biology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding stem, leaf or root structure
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about plant biology
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Plant Biology chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Plant Biology chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any plant biology question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll find answers to questions including:
- How are plants classified?
- What are the different parts of a plant stem?
- How does shoot systems grow?
- What are the parts of a leaf?
- How do root systems grow?
- Why is nitrogen fixation important for humans and plants?
- How do the xylem and phloem help move water and sugar?
- What is the biological purpose of a flower?
- What are the different pollination methods?
1. Classification of Vascular, Nonvascular, Monocot & Dicot Plants
Plants may not seem like the most interesting things around, but they are definitely useful. In this lesson, we will explore the basic classification of plants and the unique characteristics of each group.
2. Structure of Plant Stems: Vascular and Ground Tissue
You can determine the age of a tree by looking at its rings. In this lesson, we will look at the basic structures of stems and explore what causes the rings in a tree trunk.
3. Apical Meristem & Primary Shoot System Growth
Just like humans, plants need to grow. In this lesson, you'll see how plant growth occurs at specific locations and how the height of the plant is increased.
4. Lateral Meristem & Secondary Shoot System Growth
Why do some plants experience a secondary growth? Why do some plants grow only in height but others grow in height and width? Discover the answers to these questions in this lesson.
5. Structure of Leaves: The Epidermis, Palisade and Spongy Layers
Leaves may look pretty in the fall when they are changing colors, but they also provide many necessary functions for plants. In this lesson, we will explore the structures and functions of leaves.
6. Primary Root Tissue, Root Hairs and the Plant Vascular Cylinder
Roots of plants can provide support, food and water. We will look at diagrams and photos to see the different parts of roots in order to explain these different functions.
7. Root System Growth: The Root Cap, Primary Roots & Lateral Roots
It is easy to see some plants get taller, but it is important to know that plants must also have a strong support that we cannot always see. Root growth helps plants survive and can happen in two ways.
8. Nitrogen Fixation: Significance to Plants and Humans
Almost 80% of our atmosphere is nitrogen, but we can't use it. We will look at how this unusable nitrogen is converted into a form we can use and why nitrogen is important to plants and humans.
9. Xylem: The Effect of Transpiration and Cohesion on Function
Roots absorb water and leaves release water, but how does water move up a plant? In this lesson, we will look at how this happens in vascular plants, including the importance of xylem, cohesion and transpiration in the process.
10. Phloem: The Pressure Flow Hypothesis of Food Movement
Leaves produce sugars and stems; roots and fruits use these sugars for energy. In this lesson, we will look at how these sugars move throughout vascular plants, including the importance of phloem and the pressure flow hypothesis in the process.
11. Flowers: Structure and Function of Male & Female Components
In this lesson, we'll look at the parts of a flower and learn their functions. These natural beauties provide indispensable services to the plants they adorn.
12. Methods of Pollination and Flower-Pollinator Relationships
Ever wonder why bees are attracted to specific flowers? We will look at why certain animals are drawn to certain plants and other methods of pollination in this lesson.
13. Medicinal Plants: Uses & Definition
Alternative medicine typically refers to medicine that does not include Western methods or pharmaceuticals and instead uses natural or plant-based fixes. Many plants can be used medicinally. Following this lesson, you will be able to define medicinal plants and describe their uses.
14. Algae: Products, Applications & Industrial Uses
Algae live everywhere - oceans, lakes, ponds, and even in the snow on mountain tops! All they need is some moisture and a few nutrients to thrive. In this lesson, we will explore algae and its many uses.
15. Leaf Abscission: Definition & Purpose
Every year we see trees drop their leaves in anticipation of winter. This actually has a specific purpose and reason. Abscission occurs in many different plants for a variety of reasons, and in this lesson, we will look at the specifics of abscission.
16. Phyllotaxis: Spiral & Fibonacci
In this lesson, you'll explore the meaning of phyllotaxis, a term used in the plant world. You'll also learn how to identify a Fibonacci sequence and spiral, as well as some common examples found in nature.
17. Companion Cells in Plants: Function & Concept
Many of the functions in plants do not happen simply on their own; they need some help. In the case of the phloem, companion cells are the helping agent. Read on to learn how.
18. Cytokinins in Plants: Function & Concept
Plants rely on hormones for many of their life processes just like humans. In this lesson, we will examine a group of hormones known as cytokinins to see how plants use them.
19. Endodermis in Plants: Function & Definition
The plant endodermis plays an important role in selecting what gets into the plant from the soil. Here you will learn what it is, where it is, and how it functions in a plant.
20. Gynoecium: Definition & Concept
While you may have stopped to smell the roses before, have you ever stopped and looked closely at the structure of a rose flower? In this lesson, you'll learn about the female reproductive parts of a flower, or the gynoecium.
21. Lateral Meristem: Definition & Concept
Plants, like humans, need to grow! Discover how plants accomplish this and learn about the parts of the plants that are most affected by this process. When you are through, test your new knowledge with a short quiz.
22. Lignin: Definition, Properties & Function
You're probably more familiar with lignin than you think! I see sources of it outside my window and even right on my table next to me. So, what is lignin? Complete this lesson to learn what lignin is, where you can find it, and why it is so useful and abundant!
23. Palisade Layer of a Leaf: Function & Definition
The palisade layer of a leaf is one of the leaf's most important features. In this lesson, you will find out what the palisade layer is, where it is, and what it does.
24. Plant Photoreceptors: Definition, Types & Function
Can plants tell time? How do they know when it's sunny out? Photoreceptors are specialized cells that communicate this information to plants, which in turn helps them know when to make energy from sunlight as well as when and how to grow.
25. Vascular Bundles in Plants: Function & Types
Plants need nutrients and water pumped throughout their stems, roots, and leaves. In this lesson, we will learn about the function of vascular bundles, the different types, and test your knowledge with a short quiz.
26. What is Plant Physiology? - Definition & Experiments
Plants are enjoyed by many people - in our homes, on our tables as foods, and in hundreds of products we use every day. In this lesson, we will explore how plant physiology helps us to understand the many functions and behaviors of plants.
27. Adventitious Roots: Definition & Examples
Have you ever heard of adventitious roots? Well, many plants have the ability to produce them. In this lesson, you will learn about them as well as some examples of plants with this ability.
28. Aerial Roots: Definition, Function & Examples
Aerial roots are a strange variation of plant roots, serving some of the same purposes as other roots, but with a twist. Here you will learn what aerial roots are, what types of plants have them, and what makes them unusual.
29. Aggregate Fruit: Definition & Examples
This lesson is on aggregate fruit. Here, we'll learn what exactly a fruit is and how aggregate fruits are different from other fruits. We'll also check out some examples of common aggregate fruits.
30. Cambium Tissue: Definition, Features & Examples
Plants have many different cells than animals. One of these different types of cells is the cambium tissue, an area of cells that can branch out to become many different things. Let's take a look at cambium tissue.
31. Perfect Flowers: Definition, Diagram & Examples
Flower lovers everywhere may have trouble distinguishing a perfect flower, because to them, all flowers show some level of perfection. But this term means something specific in the botanical world. Read this lesson to learn what makes a flower perfect.
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