Ch 18: Plant Biology Overview

About This Chapter

Use these video lessons and quizzes to help you understand plant growth and reproduction cycles. Learn how to distinguish between vascular and nonvascular plants and identify root, stem and flower structures.

Plant Biology Overview

This chapter begins by reviewing classifications of vascular, nonvascular, monocot and dicot plants and ends with a lesson on chemical control of plant growth and reproduction. In between, you can learn about the structure of plant stems and the locations where primary and secondary shoot system growth occur. Instructors also show you how leaf structures make photosynthesis possible and illustrate the ways root tissue components support plant life by absorbing and storing nutrients.

The function of flowers' male and female structures and their roles in attracting pollinators and producing seeds are also covered, as are the processes by which plants transport water and food. You can even view lessons on types of asexual plant reproduction through bulbs, tubers, rhizomes and stolons. Once you've discovered the positive and negative types of tropisms by which plants respond to outside stimuli, you can wrap up your studies by examining seasonal growth cycles and plant hormones. By the end of this chapter, you should be familiar with the following:

  • Plant structure
  • Root systems
  • Flower components
  • Plant reproduction
  • Growth cycles

Led by experienced educators, these lessons on plant biology include quizzes that can help you judge your proficiency. Correct and incorrect answers link back to video content. Use them to improve in areas requiring additional study, or confirm your understanding of the main points addressed in the videos.

17 Lessons in Chapter 18: Plant Biology Overview
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Classification of Vascular, Nonvascular, Monocot & Dicot Plants

1. Classification of Vascular, Nonvascular, Monocot & Dicot Plants

Plants may not seem like the most interesting things around, but they are definitely useful. In this lesson, we will explore the basic classification of plants and the unique characteristics of each group.

Structure of Plant Stems: Vascular and Ground Tissue

2. Structure of Plant Stems: Vascular and Ground Tissue

You can determine the age of a tree by looking at its rings. In this lesson, we will look at the basic structures of stems and explore what causes the rings in a tree trunk.

Apical Meristem & Primary Shoot System Growth

3. Apical Meristem & Primary Shoot System Growth

Just like humans, plants need to grow. In this lesson, you'll see how plant growth occurs at specific locations and how the height of the plant is increased.

Lateral Meristem & Secondary Shoot System Growth

4. Lateral Meristem & Secondary Shoot System Growth

Why do some plants experience a secondary growth? Why do some plants grow only in height but others grow in height and width? Discover the answers to these questions in this lesson.

Structure of Leaves: The Epidermis, Palisade and Spongy Layers

5. Structure of Leaves: The Epidermis, Palisade and Spongy Layers

Leaves may look pretty in the fall when they are changing colors, but they also provide many necessary functions for plants. In this lesson, we will explore the structures and functions of leaves.

Primary Root Tissue, Root Hairs and the Plant Vascular Cylinder

6. Primary Root Tissue, Root Hairs and the Plant Vascular Cylinder

Roots of plants can provide support, food and water. We will look at diagrams and photos to see the different parts of roots in order to explain these different functions.

Root System Growth: The Root Cap, Primary Roots & Lateral Roots

7. Root System Growth: The Root Cap, Primary Roots & Lateral Roots

It is easy to see some plants get taller, but it is important to know that plants must also have a strong support that we cannot always see. Root growth helps plants survive and can happen in two ways.

Flowers: Structure and Function of Male & Female Components

8. Flowers: Structure and Function of Male & Female Components

In this lesson, we'll look at the parts of a flower and learn their functions. These natural beauties provide indispensable services to the plants they adorn.

Nitrogen Fixation: Significance to Plants and Humans

9. Nitrogen Fixation: Significance to Plants and Humans

Almost 80% of our atmosphere is nitrogen, but we can't use it. We will look at how this unusable nitrogen is converted into a form we can use and why nitrogen is important to plants and humans.

Phloem: The Pressure Flow Hypothesis of Food Movement

10. Phloem: The Pressure Flow Hypothesis of Food Movement

Leaves produce sugars and stems; roots and fruits use these sugars for energy. In this lesson, we will look at how these sugars move throughout vascular plants, including the importance of phloem and the pressure flow hypothesis in the process.

Xylem: The Effect of Transpiration and Cohesion on Function

11. Xylem: The Effect of Transpiration and Cohesion on Function

Roots absorb water and leaves release water, but how does water move up a plant? In this lesson, we will look at how this happens in vascular plants, including the importance of xylem, cohesion and transpiration in the process.

Alternation of Generations: The Gametophyte and Sporophyte

12. Alternation of Generations: The Gametophyte and Sporophyte

Even though many plants seem simple, they often have very complex life cycles. We will look at how plants alternate between different life stages as well as the terms used to describe these unique points in their life cycle.

Asexual Plant Reproduction: Vegetative Propagation and Bulbs

13. Asexual Plant Reproduction: Vegetative Propagation and Bulbs

Not all plants make attractive flowers in order to reproduce. Some plants will not make seeds and pollen either. These plants have other ways to create new offspring. We will look at a few key methods of vegetative propagation.

Tropisms: Phototropic, Geotropic and Thigmotropic Plant Growth

14. Tropisms: Phototropic, Geotropic and Thigmotropic Plant Growth

Animals aren't the only things that can respond to the environment. While plants may seem inanimate at times, they, too, can respond to the environment in order to better survive.

Photoperiodicity: Short-day, Long-day and Day-Neutral Plants

15. Photoperiodicity: Short-day, Long-day and Day-Neutral Plants

Ever wonder why some plants will bloom in the spring but others in the summer? The length of daylight can influence when a flower will bloom. We will look at how the amount of sunlight regulates when plants produce flowers.

Seasonal Growth Cycles: Perennial, Annual and Biennial Plants

16. Seasonal Growth Cycles: Perennial, Annual and Biennial Plants

We continue to grow and change throughout our entire lives, living through many seasons and years. Plants have different patterns of growth and development regarding seasons, which we will look at in this lesson.

Plant Hormones: Chemical Control of Growth and Reproduction

17. Plant Hormones: Chemical Control of Growth and Reproduction

We most often think of hormones as things that control our actions and development. However, even plants have these chemicals to help regulate growth and reproduction.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
Not Taken
Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
Not Taken

Earning College Credit

Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.

To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page

Transferring credit to the school of your choice

Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.

Support