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- Explain how different types of plants are classified.
- Describe the structure of plant stems.
- Differentiate between primary and secondary shoot system growth.
- Name the structures of leaves.
- List the components of a plant's root system and discuss the importance of root system growth.
- Describe how the process of nitrogen fixation affects plants and humans.
- Understand how xylem transports water and minerals throughout the plant.
- Learn how phloem moves nutrients through plants.
- Explain the structures and functions of the male and female components of plants.
- Describe the relationships between flowers and pollinators and discuss different methods of pollination.
1. Classification of Vascular, Nonvascular, Monocot & Dicot Plants
Plants may not seem like the most interesting things around, but they are definitely useful. In this lesson, we will explore the basic classification of plants and the unique characteristics of each group.
2. Structure of Plant Stems: Vascular and Ground Tissue
You can determine the age of a tree by looking at its rings. In this lesson, we will look at the basic structures of stems and explore what causes the rings in a tree trunk.
3. Apical Meristem & Primary Shoot System Growth
Just like humans, plants need to grow. In this lesson, you'll see how plant growth occurs at specific locations and how the height of the plant is increased.
4. Lateral Meristem & Secondary Shoot System Growth
Why do some plants experience a secondary growth? Why do some plants grow only in height but others grow in height and width? Discover the answers to these questions in this lesson.
5. Structure of Leaves: The Epidermis, Palisade and Spongy Layers
Leaves may look pretty in the fall when they are changing colors, but they also provide many necessary functions for plants. In this lesson, we will explore the structures and functions of leaves.
6. Primary Root Tissue, Root Hairs and the Plant Vascular Cylinder
Roots of plants can provide support, food and water. We will look at diagrams and photos to see the different parts of roots in order to explain these different functions.
7. Root System Growth: The Root Cap, Primary Roots & Lateral Roots
It is easy to see some plants get taller, but it is important to know that plants must also have a strong support that we cannot always see. Root growth helps plants survive and can happen in two ways.
8. Nitrogen Fixation: Significance to Plants and Humans
Almost 80% of our atmosphere is nitrogen, but we can't use it. We will look at how this unusable nitrogen is converted into a form we can use and why nitrogen is important to plants and humans.
9. Xylem: The Effect of Transpiration and Cohesion on Function
Roots absorb water and leaves release water, but how does water move up a plant? In this lesson, we will look at how this happens in vascular plants, including the importance of xylem, cohesion and transpiration in the process.
10. Phloem: The Pressure Flow Hypothesis of Food Movement
Leaves produce sugars and stems; roots and fruits use these sugars for energy. In this lesson, we will look at how these sugars move throughout vascular plants, including the importance of phloem and the pressure flow hypothesis in the process.
11. Flowers: Structure and Function of Male & Female Components
In this lesson, we'll look at the parts of a flower and learn their functions. These natural beauties provide indispensable services to the plants they adorn.
12. Methods of Pollination and Flower-Pollinator Relationships
Ever wonder why bees are attracted to specific flowers? We will look at why certain animals are drawn to certain plants and other methods of pollination in this lesson.
13. Thigmotropism in Plants: Definition & Overview
Tropisms are natural responses of organisms to external stimuli. Thigmotropism is a response that's often seen in plants in response to touch or contact. In this lesson, you'll learn about thigmotropism and its functions in plants.
14. Chlorophyll in Plants: Benefits, Function & Definition
What makes plants green? A small molecule with a big job called chlorophyll is responsible for this, and it's also what helps plants get energy from the sun. Learn about chlorophyll in this lesson.
15. Cortex in Plants: Function & Concept
Everyone knows that carrots, onions, and potatoes are healthy to eat. But did you know that you're actually eating the cortex of a plant? In this lesson, learn about the function of one part of a plant called the cortex.
16. Ephemeral Plants: Examples & Concept
Plants have a variety of life spans; some live for years, while others live for only short periods of time. In this lesson, we'll examine the plants that botanists classify as ephemeral.
17. Frond: Definition & Structure
Learn more about ferns, an ancient plant that has withstood the test of time. Uncover what makes the fern leaf, or frond, distinctive by learning more about its structure, then test your knowledge with a quiz.
18. Lower Epidermis of a Leaf: Function & Concept
As the primary means for capturing the sunlight necessary for photosynthesis, the upper surface of leaves is crucial for plant survival. But what about the underside? In this lesson, we'll examine the leaf's lower epidermis structure.
19. Plant Epidermis: Function & Structure
How do plants protect their internal parts from damage and disease? A specialized layer of cells called the epidermis covers the entire plant, and it serves a variety of functions that make it essential to plant survival.
20. Plant Shoot System: Structure & Function
The plant shoot system is a complex network of a number of different parts all working to keep the plant healthy and growing. It is fascinating how much is involved in what we usually look at as a simple living organism. We will investigate the shoot system here.
21. Plasmodesmata: Definition & Function
The plant cell is as amazing as its counterpart the animal cell. Plant cells have a cell wall that keeps things in and others out. How though, do plants get their nutrients and other extracellular material in? We'll explore the plasmodesmata to find out.
22. Root Cap: Function & Definition
In this lesson, you will learn about root caps, which provide protection to root tips. Roots are very complex structures with a variety of functions, and the root cap is a small but integral part of the overall root system.
23. Stamen of a Flower: Definition, Function & Design
This lesson will explore the male reproductive structures of flowering plants, with a focus on the structure known as the stamen. The lesson will also focus on the parts of the stamen, their functions, and their involvement in pollination.
24. The Nitrogen Cycle: Definition, Facts & Steps
Oh the places we'll go on our nitrogen cycle tour! Nitrogen is an element that cycles through you, me, plants, and other organisms. This lesson will not only follow nitrogen on this cycle, but will also share some nitrogen facts!
25. Thylakoid Membrane in Photosynthesis: Definition, Function & Structure
Inside of plant cells, there are chloroplasts. Inside the chloroplasts are all of the structures that help plants capture and convert light into energy. The thylakoid membrane is where much of this occurs, and we will discuss its role here.
26. The Backster Effect
In this lesson, learn about Cleve Backster's history with the polygraph and his experiments with plants, resulting in what he claimed to be 'plant perception', or what's better known as the 'Backster Effect'.
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