About This Chapter
Plants surround us; even in the bleakest cityscape, you can spot the occasional patch of grass poking up from a crack in the sidewalk. Still, we might pass by these plants every day and know next to nothing about their inner workings and significance if it weren't for the field of plant biology.
See how plants are classified into monocots and dicots as well as vascular and nonvascular plants. These latter classifications can give you a better idea of how some plants, like liverworts, don't reach great heights and why others, like oaks, can tower proudly. As we delve deeper into the structure of plant stems, you'll investigate how vascular tissue and ground tissue provide structural support and facilitate the movement of materials within plants.
Before cells differentiate, we have the meristem with all its possibilities for growth. We'll unravel the patterns of plant shot growth, both in terms of primary growth and secondary growth. From shoots, we'll move to leaves and examine the epidermis, palisade layer, spongy layer and stomata to see how plants interact with the atmosphere.
Our lessons will also go deeper to observe the life of plants below ground. You'll learn the secrets of root systems as we examine root caps, primary roots, lateral roots and root hairs. A significant process called nitrogen fixation can take place among these myriad parts with the help of microorganisms. See how it affects both plants and humans and learn what parts nitrogenase, ammonia, ammonium, nitrate and nitrite play in the process.
How do nutrients move from roots to stems to leaves and then back again? Follow our lessons through the ups and downs of xylem and phloem. We'll see what the cohesion-tension process means for transpiration. You'll also notice that plants rely on pressure as we explore sieve tube elements and navigate the pressure flow model. Finally, reproduction is a whole different game for plants. Our lessons will cover male and female structures in addition to pollination. Welcome to the wonderful world of plants, and thanks for watching!
1. Classification of Vascular, Nonvascular, Monocot & Dicot Plants
Plants may not seem like the most interesting things around, but they are definitely useful. In this lesson, we will explore the basic classification of plants and the unique characteristics of each group.
2. Structure of Plant Stems: Vascular and Ground Tissue
You can determine the age of a tree by looking at its rings. In this lesson, we will look at the basic structures of stems and explore what causes the rings in a tree trunk.
3. Apical Meristem & Primary Shoot System Growth
Just like humans, plants need to grow. In this lesson, you'll see how plant growth occurs at specific locations and how the height of the plant is increased.
4. Lateral Meristem & Secondary Shoot System Growth
Why do some plants experience a secondary growth? Why do some plants grow only in height but others grow in height and width? Discover the answers to these questions in this lesson.
5. Structure of Leaves: The Epidermis, Palisade and Spongy Layers
Leaves may look pretty in the fall when they are changing colors, but they also provide many necessary functions for plants. In this lesson, we will explore the structures and functions of leaves.
6. Primary Root Tissue, Root Hairs and the Plant Vascular Cylinder
Roots of plants can provide support, food and water. We will look at diagrams and photos to see the different parts of roots in order to explain these different functions.
7. Root System Growth: The Root Cap, Primary Roots & Lateral Roots
It is easy to see some plants get taller, but it is important to know that plants must also have a strong support that we cannot always see. Root growth helps plants survive and can happen in two ways.
8. Xylem: The Effect of Transpiration and Cohesion on Function
Roots absorb water and leaves release water, but how does water move up a plant? In this lesson, we will look at how this happens in vascular plants, including the importance of xylem, cohesion and transpiration in the process.
9. Phloem: The Pressure Flow Hypothesis of Food Movement
Leaves produce sugars and stems; roots and fruits use these sugars for energy. In this lesson, we will look at how these sugars move throughout vascular plants, including the importance of phloem and the pressure flow hypothesis in the process.
10. Flowers: Structure and Function of Male & Female Components
In this lesson, we'll look at the parts of a flower and learn their functions. These natural beauties provide indispensable services to the plants they adorn.
11. Methods of Pollination and Flower-Pollinator Relationships
Ever wonder why bees are attracted to specific flowers? We will look at why certain animals are drawn to certain plants and other methods of pollination in this lesson.
12. Nitrogen Fixation: Significance to Plants and Humans
Almost 80% of our atmosphere is nitrogen, but we can't use it. We will look at how this unusable nitrogen is converted into a form we can use and why nitrogen is important to plants and humans.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 95 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 2,000 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the CLEP Biology: Study Guide & Test Prep course
- Scientific Principles
- Review of Inorganic Chemistry For Biologists
- Introduction to Organic Chemistry
- Cell Biology
- How Enzymes Work
- Basics of DNA & RNA
- Process of DNA Replication
- The Transcription and Translation Process
- Basics of Gene Mutations
- Basics of Metabolic Biochemistry
- Overview of Cell Division
- Plant Reproduction and Growth
- Physiology I: The Circulatory, Respiratory, Digestive, Excretory, and Musculoskeletal Systems
- Physiology II: The Nervous, Immune, and Endocrine Systems
- Animal Reproduction and Development
- Biology of Genetics
- Principles of Ecology
- Speciation & Evolution
- The Origin and History of Life On Earth
- Phylogeny and the Classification of Organisms
- Social Biology
- Analyzing Scientific Data