About This Chapter
Political Developments (1760-1848) - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The purpose of this chapter is to help you understand the major political and social movements that took place in Europe and Latin America during the 18th- and 19th-centuries, which included the Age of Enlightenment. The chapter will begin with a discussion of liberalism, a well-defined political philosophy that emphasized equality and private property and rejected the concepts of absolute monarchy and hereditary privileges. In this introductory lesson, you'll also learn how the concepts of republicanism and radical reform in government developed during this period.
As the chapter progresses, you'll find out about some of the philosophical and political challenges to capitalism, including Marxism and socialism. The instructor will also discuss the class and economic struggles that led to upheaval and revolution in Europe and Latin America in the 1800s. When you've finished watching the videos and taking the self-assessment quizzes, you should be able to:
- Identify the key political movements and philosophies that developed during the 1800s
- Understand communism and socialism as responses to capitalism
- Discuss the causes of major European, French and Latin American revolts of the early 1800s
- Identify key political figures of the 1800s, including Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
|Liberalism, Radicalism and Republicanism in the 1800s||Understand how developing political ideas became more systematic during the 1800s.|
|Socialism: Definition and Leaders||Discuss the earliest leaders in the socialist movement, such as Robert Owen, Charles Fourier and Henri de Saint-Simon, and the workers' response to capitalism.|
|European Revolutions and Revolts from 1815-1832||Describe the political upheavals that occurred across Europe and Russia from 1815-1832, including governmental responses.|
|Independence Movements in Latin America||Identify and explain the independence movements that took place in Central and South America.|
|The French Revolution of 1848||Describe the social revolution that occurred in France in 1848, including the February Revolution, June Days and the emergence of the Second French Empire under Napoleon III.|
|Central European Revolutions of 1848||Discuss the nationalist revolts against imperial powers, especially the one that took place in Austria.|
|Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: The Communist Manifesto||Understand the effects and influence of this important 1848 publication.|
1. Liberalism, Radicalism, and Republicanism in the 1800s
This lesson will define and explain the political ideologies of the 19th century, specifically radicalism, republicanism, and liberalism. In doing so, it will highlight their beliefs in the right to vote, freedom from religion, separation of church from state, and laissez-faire economics.
2. Socialism: Definition & Leaders
This lesson defines and explains the 19th century political ideology socialism. In doing this, it will highlight the roles of the Industrial Revolution and the socialist experiments of Robert Owen and Charles Fourier.
3. European Revolutions and Revolts from 1815-1832
This lesson will explain the European revolutions occurring in the first half of the 19th century. It will discuss the common classes' response to the Congress of Vienna, the Concert of Europe, and the old aristocracies' grasping for power.
4. Independence Movements in Latin America: Examples & Impact
This lesson will explore the 19th century Latin American revolutions. In doing so, it will highlight the roles L'Ouverture, Hidalgo, and Bolivar played in bringing freedom to Haiti, Mexico, and South America.
5. The French Revolution of 1848: History, Causes & Events
This lesson will explore the French Revolution of 1848 that led to the eventual rise of Napoleon Bonaparte III. It will highlight the revolution of the bourgeoisie while also explaining the conflict of the middle classes known as June Days.
6. Central European Revolutions of 1848: History, Causes & Effects
This lesson explores the Central European revolutions of 1848. In doing so, it will highlight the nationalist movements across Germany, Austria, and Italy. It will also signify the revolution in France as the catalyst for this historic year.
7. Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels: The Communist Manifesto
This lesson will explore the 19th century roots of Marxism and communism. In doing this, it will explain the role the Industrial Revolution played in forming the famous work of Marx and Engels, known as the Communist Manifesto.
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Other chapters within the History 102: Western Civilization II course
- Introduction to Western Civilization II
- Absolutism and Constitutionalism in Western Europe (1648-1715)
- Power Shifts in Eastern Europe (1648-1740)
- Empire and Expansion in the 18th Century (1700-1799)
- The Scientific Revolution & the Enlightenment (1500-1790)
- The French Revolution and Napoleon Bonaparte (1780-1815)
- Industrialization (1700-1900)
- The Age of Nationalism (1850-1914)
- European Life and Trends (1850-1914)
- Imperialism in the 19th and 20th Centuries
- World War I (1914-1919)
- Between the World Wars (1919-1939)
- World War II (1939-1945)
- Western Civilization Since 1945
- Studying for History 102