Ch 4: Political Ideologies and Philosophy: Help and Review

About This Chapter

The Political Ideologies and Philosophy chapter of this Intro to Political Science Help and Review course is the simplest way to master political ideas and theories. This chapter uses simple and fun videos that are about five minutes long, plus lesson quizzes and a chapter exam to ensure students learn the essentials of political ideologies and philosophy.

Who's it for?

Anyone who needs help understanding introductory political science material will benefit from taking this course. You will be able to grasp the subject matter faster, retain critical knowledge longer and earn better grades. You're in the right place if you:

  • Have fallen behind in understanding American conservatism and liberalism, fascism and feminism.
  • Need an efficient way to learn about political ideologies and philosophy.
  • Learn best with engaging auditory and visual tools.
  • Struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD.
  • Experience difficulty understanding your teachers.
  • Missed class time and need to catch up.
  • Can't access extra political science learning resources at school.

How it works:

  • Start at the beginning, or identify the topics that you need help with.
  • Watch and learn from fun videos, reviewing as needed.
  • Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
  • Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
  • Submit questions to one of our instructors for personalized support if you need extra help.
  • Verify you're ready by completing the Political Ideologies and Philosophy chapter exam.

Why it works:

  • Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
  • Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
  • Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Political Ideologies and Philosophy chapter exam to be prepared.
  • Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any relevant question. They're here to help!
  • Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.

Students will review:

In this chapter, you'll learn the answers to questions including:

  • How do empirical and normative approaches to political theories differ?
  • What is the definition of political ideology?
  • How do American conservatism and liberalism compare with each other?
  • What differences and similarities exist between socialism and communism?
  • How has fascism evolved over time, and what is its influence on today's politics?
  • What do anarchists believe?
  • What influence do feminists and feminist ideologies have on modern day politics?

40 Lessons in Chapter 4: Political Ideologies and Philosophy: Help and Review
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Approaches to Political Theory: Normative and Empirical

1. Approaches to Political Theory: Normative and Empirical

Political theory is the study of the ideas and values concerning concepts of the state, power, individuals, groups, and the relationship between them. Learn more on the approaches to political theory, such as normative and empirical, and how they relate.

What Is a Political Ideology?

2. What Is a Political Ideology?

A political ideology is a set of beliefs that forms the basis of how an individual, a group, or a social class views the world and the proper role of government. Explore the definition and importance of political ideology and examples of two different types, liberalism and socialism.

Liberalism: History, Ideology, and Influence

3. Liberalism: History, Ideology, and Influence

In the Western world, liberalism is one of the great political traditions and a dominant political ideology in the United States. Learn about the history of liberalism as well as the definition, ideology, and influence.

Conservatism: History, Ideology, and Influence

4. Conservatism: History, Ideology, and Influence

Traditional conservatism as a political philosophy dates back to the late 18th century but only loosely resembles the brand of conservatism practiced in the United States today. Explore the history of traditional conservatism in Europe and compare and contrast it with the modern American style of conservatism.

Libertarianism: History and Philosophy

5. Libertarianism: History and Philosophy

Libertarianism is a political philosophy that advocates for a minimal government that protects individual liberty above all else. Explore the history of Libertarianism and its philosophy, general principles, and various types.

Communism vs. Socialism: Similarities & Differences

6. Communism vs. Socialism: Similarities & Differences

Socialism is focused on reducing social class inequalities through equal resource allocation whereas communism is focused on complete equality through no private property ownership. Explore the similarities and differences between the philosophies.

Anarchism: History and Philosophy

7. Anarchism: History and Philosophy

Anarchism is a controversial philosophy that has been accepted and rejected throughout history. In this lesson, dive into the definition of anarchism, its different types, and its history.

Fascism: History, Ideology, and Influence

8. Fascism: History, Ideology, and Influence

Fascism is a dangerous political ideology that developed after World War I in Italy and Germany. This lesson breaks down the definition and characteristics of fascism, its history, and its negative influence on the world.

Feminism: History, Ideology, and Impact in Politics

9. Feminism: History, Ideology, and Impact in Politics

Feminism is a political and social movement, developed in waves throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, that advocates for equality between men and women. Explore the history, ideology, and impact that feminism had on politics, and explore the different types of feminism.

What is a Counterargument? - Definition & Examples

10. What is a Counterargument? - Definition & Examples

A counterargument is a perspective that opposes the main argument. Learn the definition of a counterargument and practical examples of counterarguments in persuasive writing.

What is a Social Contract? - Definition & Examples

11. What is a Social Contract? - Definition & Examples

The definition of a social contract is a group of people who agree to surrender certain rights and adopt a central authority to protect their other rights. The origins of this concept date back to the first ideas of revolutions. Examine examples of social contracts and the differences between them.

Deontology: Definition, Theory, Ethics & Examples

12. Deontology: Definition, Theory, Ethics & Examples

Immanuel Kant's deontology tells us that sometimes we have to act in a way we believe is ethically wrong because the outcome will be good. Learn more about the theory, ethics and examples and also read on Kant's categorical imperative.

On Liberty by John Stuart Mill: Summary & Analysis

13. On Liberty by John Stuart Mill: Summary & Analysis

John Stuart Mill's 'On Liberty' is a philosophical essay stating that individuals have a right to independence. Review a summary and background of Mill's work, explore freedom and authority, and analyze Mill's ideas.

What is New Federalism? - Definition & Examples

14. What is New Federalism? - Definition & Examples

The term New Federalism was coined in the 1980s when President Ronald Reagan worked to return more power to the sates and rescind some powers from the federal government. New Federalism focuses on allowing states to resolve and deal with social programs and issues.

Qualities of a Critical Thinker

15. Qualities of a Critical Thinker

Knowledgeable decision-making based on logic is known as critical thinking. Learn about the qualities of a critical thinker and understand an analytical approach to use logic and reasoning to solve complex problems.

The Critical Thinking Process: Point-of-View, Assumptions, Evidence & Conclusions

16. The Critical Thinking Process: Point-of-View, Assumptions, Evidence & Conclusions

The critical thinking process utilizes a fact-based examination of an issue to reach a logical conclusion. This lesson demonstrates the process used to establish the origins of beliefs and identify any wrong assumptions.

Alexander Pope's An Essay on Man: Summary & Analysis

17. Alexander Pope's An Essay on Man: Summary & Analysis

Alexander Pope's poem, An Essay on Man, was published in 1734 during the Enlightenment era and is famous for its portrayal of the human condition. Explore the context of the poem through a summary and analysis of why An Essay on Man is still considered one of the greatest Neoclassical works.

Sigmund Freud's Layers of the Self

18. Sigmund Freud's Layers of the Self

Sigmund Freud's theories of psychology focus on the self, described through three distinct layers of personality: Id, ego, and superego. Learn the features of each of these elements, and how their dynamic makes up the concept of self.

St. Thomas Aquinas' Five Proofs of God

19. St. Thomas Aquinas' Five Proofs of God

St. Thomas Aquinas is a Roman Catholic saint and philosopher who wrote Summa Theologica. Learn about this work of Aquinas that describes the five proofs of God, which are motion, causality, contingency vs. necessity, perfection, and design.

St. Anselm's Ontological Argument for God's Existence

20. St. Anselm's Ontological Argument for God's Existence

In the 11th century, St. Anselm of Canterbury delivered an ontological argument that God must exist since a God who exists is greater than a God who does not. Explore the idea of God, Anselm's views of reality versus ideas, and learn the definition of the perfect island argument.

What is Interventionism in Politics? - Definition, History & Examples

21. What is Interventionism in Politics? - Definition, History & Examples

Interventionism is legally and morally dubious, even in the best of circumstances. So, how do people keep justifying it? In this lesson, we'll look at these questions and explore examples of interventionism from around the world.

American Interventionism: Origins, Pros & Cons

22. American Interventionism: Origins, Pros & Cons

In this lesson we learn about the history of American interventionism. We discuss the origins of American interventionism and identify the pros and cons of intervening in foreign affairs.

Interventionism in Politics vs. Liberalism

23. Interventionism in Politics vs. Liberalism

This lesson considers the government's role in the lives of its citizens. We'll look at the terms liberalism and interventionism and see how they have interacted throughout history.

Regionalism in Politics: Definition, Characteristics & Types

24. Regionalism in Politics: Definition, Characteristics & Types

Regionalism prioritizes the local over the state or national level in importance and politics. Explore the defining characteristics of regionalism, its consequences, and types of political regionalism.

Regionalism in Politics: History & Examples

25. Regionalism in Politics: History & Examples

On what scale should we understand politics? Do political decisions happen at the national level, or the global? How about the regional? In this lesson, we'll look at regionalism and see what this concept means in the world today.

Regionalism in Politics: Importance & Effects

26. Regionalism in Politics: Importance & Effects

Regionalism may be the wave of the future, but what does it really mean? Let's take a look at the real-world implications of regionalism and see what impacts it is having already.

Regionalism in Indian Politics: Role, Causes & Impact

27. Regionalism in Indian Politics: Role, Causes & Impact

Regionalism in politics often manifests as a stronger association of the people to a region than a nation. Explore regionalism in Indian politics, how it contrasts with nationalism in India, its causes, impact, and role determining governance.

Social Realism vs. Regionalism

28. Social Realism vs. Regionalism

What does American art look like? There's a long history behind this question, and in this lesson we're going to see how it was answered by both Regionalism and Social Realism.

Religious Socialism: Definition, Theory & Criticism

29. Religious Socialism: Definition, Theory & Criticism

You may have heard of socialism, but religious socialism's unique. In this lesson, we're going to see how religion and socialism can interact and examine arguments for and against this theory.

Types of Religious Socialism

30. Types of Religious Socialism

Should you ever mix religion and politics? According to some people, yes. In this lesson, we'll look at a few major branches of religious socialism and see how each unites faith with economics and politics.

Social Conservatism vs. Social Liberalism

31. Social Conservatism vs. Social Liberalism

Social conservatism and social liberalism are opposing political ideologies regarding society. Explore the defining characteristics of social conservatism and social liberalism, then contrast their similarities and differences.

Social Conservatism vs. Fiscal Conservatism

32. Social Conservatism vs. Fiscal Conservatism

Social and fiscal conservatism are two areas of conservative political ideology that focus on different aspects of life and governance. Explore the similarities and differences between social conservativism and fiscal conservatism.

Cultural Conservatism vs. Social Conservatism

33. Cultural Conservatism vs. Social Conservatism

Some people want to conserve society, while others want to conserve culture. So, what's the difference? In this lesson, we'll examine both ideas and see how they're similar and how they're different.

Social Progressivism vs Conservatism

34. Social Progressivism vs Conservatism

Political ideologies often involve social values and opposing views of those values. Explore the defining characteristics of social progressivism and social conservatism, their similarities and differences, and their effects on the political sphere.

What is Social Conservatism? - Definition & Examples

35. What is Social Conservatism? - Definition & Examples

Social conservatism is a specific political ideology under the umbrella of conservatism. Explore the characteristics of social conservativism, its contrast with social liberalism, and its perspectives on marriage, abortion, and religious liberties.

What is Social Imperialism? - Definition, Effects & Examples

36. What is Social Imperialism? - Definition, Effects & Examples

Imperialism is not often a word we associate with social reform or seizing the means of production. Yet, people have found ways. In this lesson, we'll look at the concept of social imperialism and check out some historical examples.

Yellow Socialism vs. Democracy

37. Yellow Socialism vs. Democracy

There's a lot of talk about how socialism can be democratic, but that changes when the socialism turns yellow. In this lesson, we'll see what that means and explore these opposing ideologies.

Yellow Socialism vs. Fascism

38. Yellow Socialism vs. Fascism

Fascism had a big impact on the world, but where did it come from? In this lesson, we'll look at some of the unexpected roots of Fascism and compare some related ideologies.

Yellow Socialism vs. Capitalism

39. Yellow Socialism vs. Capitalism

Socialism and capitalism have pretty different ideas about the economy. In this lesson, we're going to see how a radical variation known as yellow socialism changed this conversation.

Yellow Socialism vs. Communism

40. Yellow Socialism vs. Communism

Socialism and communism are closely related, but what happens when that socialism turns yellow? And what does that even mean? In this lesson, we'll explore these terms and see how they are similar and different.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
Not Taken
Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
Not Taken
More Exams
There are even more practice exams available in Political Ideologies and Philosophy: Help and Review.

Earning College Credit

Did you know… We have over 220 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.

To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page

Support