About This Chapter
Post-War Europe, Asia, Middle East and Africa - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The period after World War II was a time of dynamic change for Europe, Asia, the Middle East and Africa. In this series of lessons, an instructor walks you through the roots and consequences of geopolitical, social and economic trends. Topics studied also include major events, people and concepts. At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:
- Describe the relationship between the U.S. and the Soviet Union
- Identify major world leaders and characterize their actions
- Discuss relevant theories, such as the containment theory
- Discuss how and why the post-war experience varied by region
|Post-War Europe: the Berlin Airlift & the Marshall Plan||Understand U.S. involvement in the immediate aftermath of WWII.|
|Meta-Disciplines: Traditionalists, Revisionism, and Post-Revisionists||Explain these three approaches' history.|
|Tension Between the US and the Soviets: Wars, Confrontations & the Cold War||Describe international relations between these two countries.|
|The Theory of Containment & the Birth of NATO||Explain this theory and how the establishment of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was an outgrowth of that.|
|Soviet Domination of Eastern Europe||Describe the relationship between the Soviet Union and its neighboring countries.|
|Post-war Poland: Soviet Occupation, Social Unrest & Economic Depression||Describe conditions in Poland.|
|Post-war Czechoslovakia: Politics, Economy & Soviet Influence||Explain what was happening in Czechoslovakia.|
|Post-war Yugoslavia: New Name, Government & Republics||Discuss the creation and political organization of Yugoslavia.|
|Decolonization and Nationalism in Indonesia, Vietnam, India & Pakistan||Discuss the results of these two forces in Asia.|
|Decolonization and Nationalism in Israel, Egypt, Africa, & Algeria||Describe the presence of these two forces in Northern Africa and the Middle East.|
|Post-Cold War European Cooperation: Institutions and Treaties||Identify areas of unity among post-Cold War European nations.|
|European Union Expansion: Events and Timeline||Name the events and discuss a timeline of European Union growth.|
|Post-war Great Britain: Reforms, Industry & Economy||Describe the changes in Great Britain.|
|The Troubles in Ireland and Bloody Sunday||Discuss the sociopolitical and economic problems in Ireland.|
|Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher: Influence and Impact on Great Britain||Discuss Thatcher and her work.|
|Post-war France: Politics, Economy & Rebuilding||Discuss changes in France.|
|Post-war Italy: New Republic and Social & Economic Rebuilding||Describe socioeconomic changes in Italy.|
|Post-war Germany: Politics, Developments & Partitioning||Talk about political changes in Germany.|
|Building and Tearing Down the Berlin Wall: History and Timeline||Describe the Berlin Wall and its significance.|
|The Reunification of East and West Germany in 1990||Discuss how reunification affected East and West Germany.|
|Nikita Khrushchev: Life, Achievements & Policies||Provide a brief biography of this Soviet leader.|
|The End of Communism in Eastern Europe: Events and Timeline||Discuss the failings of Communism specific to this region.|
|Gorbachev's Policies of Glasnost and Perestroika: Explanation and Significance||Explain these policies and why they were important.|
|Yeltsin and the New Russian Republic: History and Timeline||Explain the changes wrought by Yeltsin and their affects.|
|Ethnic Warfare in Former Yugoslavia: Events and Timeline||Discuss the deterioration of what was Yugoslavia.|
|The Vietnam War: Causes, Conflicts & Effects||Describe the roots, escalation and battles in this conflict.|
|President George H.W. Bush: Foreign Policy||Describe this president's foreign policy in a post-Cold War world.|
|Conflict Between Muslims and Hindus in India||Discuss this conflict and how it lead to the separation of India and Pakistan.|
|Who was Mohandas Gandhi?||Provide a brief biography, and discuss the concept of civil disobedience.|
|Who was Jawaharlal Nehru?||Provide a brief biography.|
|Sputnick, NASA, and the Internet||Discuss how science and technology have influenced societal change since WWII.|
|Communism and the Cuban Revolution: Castro, the Bay of Pigs & the Cuban Missile Crisis||Identify these people and events, and discuss the Cuban Missile Crisis.|
|Post-War Asia: Korea's Partition & Reconstruction of Japan's Government||Discuss why and how these changes were made.|
|The People's Republic of China: Politics & Economy||Explain why China has shifted course multiple times since 1949.|
|Post-War Japan and Attempts at Democracy and Modernization||Discuss these political movements in post-war Japan.|
|Changes in Africa After World War II||Identify post-WWII changes in Africa, including independence movements.|
1. Post-War Europe: the Berlin Airlift & the Marshall Plan
In this lesson, we will learn about the Marshall Plan and the Berlin Airlift. We will examine the conditions in postwar Europe that resulted in these events, and we will understand why they are important.
2. Meta-Disciplines: Traditionalists, Revisionism, and Post-Revisionists
In this lesson, we explore the concepts of meta-disciplines and historiography, discovering the three main schools of thought often identified in the study of history itself.
3. Tension Between the US and the Soviets: Wars, Confrontations & the Cold War
In this lesson, we explore the causes and factors that led to increased tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union after WWII, and to the incidents that almost led to all out war.
4. The Theory of Containment & the Birth of NATO
In this lesson, we explore the foreign policy of the U.S. and Western Europe directly after WWII. We will look at its theory of containment regarding communism, and the birth of NATO.
5. Soviet Domination of Eastern Europe
In this lesson, we explore the post-World War II settlement of Eastern Europe, and the subsequent Soviet domination of governments in Eastern Europe, as well as the creation of the Warsaw Pact.
6. Post-war Poland: Soviet Occupation, Social Unrest & Economic Depression
In this lesson, we explore the history of Poland after WWII, from its occupation by the Soviet Union and subsequent Soviet influence upon Polish government to the Solidarity movement and Lech Walesa.
7. Post-war Czechoslovakia: Politics, Economy & Soviet Influence
In this lesson, we explore the history and politics of Czechoslovakia from World War II until the country's eventual dissolution only a few short years after the fall of communism and the removal of Soviet influence.
8. Post-war Yugoslavia: New Name, Government & Republics
In this lesson, we explore the rise of communism in Yugoslavia after the expulsion of the German invaders after WWII. We'll then look at its subsequent problems with ethnic violence and its eventual dissolution in the 1990s.
9. Decolonization and Nationalism in Indonesia, Vietnam, India & Pakistan
In this lesson, we explore the nature of nationalism in the colonial world and its various manifestations in South and Southeast Asia during the second half of the 20th century.
10. Decolonization and Nationalism in Israel, Egypt, Africa & Algeria
In this lesson, we explore the concepts of nationalism and national self-determination and how they affected the decolonization of the Middle East and Africa in the second half of the 20th century.
11. Post-Cold War European Cooperation: Institutions & Treaties
In this lesson, we explore the increasing cooperation between European states during the Cold War years and beyond, from a six-nation agreement concerning coal and steel to a far-reaching agreement binding most of Europe.
12. European Union Expansion: Events & Timelines
In this lesson, we briefly explore the piecemeal formation of the EU and discuss the nature of the Union today and its role as the political authority for most of Europe.
13. Post-war Great Britain: Reforms, Industry & Economy
In this lesson, we explore the political developments in Great Britain after World War II and the development of the British welfare state under the direction of the Labour Party and Clement Attlee.
14. The Troubles in Ireland and Bloody Sunday
In this lesson, we explore the centuries-old rivalry between Catholics and Protestants in Ireland, and the political and military struggle for the six northernmost counties in Ireland during the thirty-year period known as 'The Troubles.'
15. Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher: Influence and Impact on Great Britain
In this lesson, we explore the life and political career of Great Britain's first female prime minister, Margaret Thatcher. A staunch conservative, her controversial policies guided Britain through one of its toughest economic times.
16. Post-war France: Politics, Economy & Rebuilding
In this lesson, we explore the rebuilding of the entirety of French society in the decades after World War II, from the economic recovery aided greatly by the United States to the changes in the structure of French government.
17. Post-war Italy: New Republic and Social & Economic Rebuilding
In this lesson we explore the post-WWII rebuilding of the Italian economy, the restructuring of its fundamental political structures, and its close partnership with the U.S. in the Cold War world.
18. Post-war Germany: Politics, Developments & Partitioning
In this lesson, we explore Germany after the end of World War II, from its partitioning due to its part on the front line of the Cold War to its eventual reunification in 1990.
19. Building and Tearing Down the Berlin Wall: History and Timeline
In this lesson, we explore the history of the Berlin Wall, from its beginnings as a makeshift barrier between East and West Berlin, to its final demise as communism fell across Eastern Europe in the late 1980s.
20. The Reunification of East and West Germany in 1990
In this lesson we explore the unique history of East and West Germany after Germany's defeat in WWII and the conditions surrounding its eventual reunification in 1990.
21. Nikita Khrushchev: Life, Achievements & Policies
In this lesson, we explore the life and career of Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev. The country's leader after the death of Joseph Stalin, Khrushchev implemented several domestic reforms while also standing toe-to-toe with the West.
22. The End of Communism in Eastern Europe: Events and Timeline
In this lesson, we explore the immediate aftermath of the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, where both political structures and economic models were left in limbo.
23. Gorbachev's Policies of Glasnost and Perestroika: Explanation and Significance
In this lesson, we will examine Mikhail Gorbachev's reform policies of glasnost and perestroika. We will learn what led to these developments and see how they impacted the Soviet Union.
24. Yeltsin and the New Russian Republic: History and Timeline
In this lesson, we explore the fall of the Soviet Union and the reemergence of Russia and the subsequent presidency of Russia's first president, Boris Yeltsin.
25. Ethnic Warfare in Former Yugoslavia: Events and Timeline
In this lesson we explore the breakup of the formerly communist state in the Balkans, Yugoslavia. In the 1990s, several Yugoslav states declared independence from the Serbian-dominated central government.
26. The Vietnam War: Causes, Conflicts & Effects
The Vietnam War was the longest and most polarizing conflict in the history of the United States. Learn about the causes of the war as well as its effects on the United States.
27. President George H.W. Bush: Foreign Policy
President George H.W. Bush's foreign policy was a pragmatic blend of diplomacy and force. Learn more about Bush's international affairs during his tenure as President of the United States.
28. Sputnik to the Internet: How Technology and Science Have Changed Society since WWII
In this lesson, we will highlight critical scientific and technological advances since the end of World War II. We will explore the profound effects these advances had upon society.
29. Who was Jawaharlal Nehru? - Biography & Rule
In this lesson, we will learn about the life of Jawaharlal Nehru. We will learn about his role in India's independence movement, and about his lasting impact on Indian national politics.
30. Mohandas Gandhi: Beliefs, Accomplishments & Assassination
In this lesson, we will learn about the life of Mohandas Gandhi. We will learn what values he stood for, how he stood for them, and his lasting legacy.
31. Muslim and Hindu Conflict in India and the Partition of India and Pakistan
In this lesson, we will learn about religious tensions in India and the partition of India and Pakistan following British rule. We will see what led to these developments, and we will explore their context.
32. Communism and the Cuban Revolution: Castro, the Bay of Pigs & the Cuban Missile Crisis
In this lesson, we will examine the relationship between communism and the country of Cuba. We will focus specifically on the Cuban Revolution, Fidel Castro's rise to power, the Bay of Pigs Invasion, and the Cuban Missile Crisis.
33. Post-War Asia: Korea's Partition & Reconstruction of Japan's Government
In this lesson, we will examine post-war Asia. We will specifically focus on the partition of Korea, and the occupation and reconstruction of Japan. We will understand why these events took place, and how their impact is felt to this day.
34. The People's Republic of China: Politics & Economy
The People's Republic of China was established in 1949. Since that time, the politics and economy of this country have shifted course several times, mainly due to the leaders of the country and their vastly different goals.
35. Changes in Africa After World War II
In this lesson, we will examine changes in Africa following World War II. We will discover what factors led to decolonization in the wake of World War II, and we will highlight the central themes surrounding African independence movements.
36. Post-WWII Japan: Democracy & Modernization
This lesson explores the actions of the International Allied Council for Japan after World War II. It highlights the Japanese constitution as well as the labor and land reforms enacted to modernize and democratize Japan.
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Other chapters within the World History: Credit Recovery course
- Foundational Concepts of World History
- Major Belief Systems of the World
- Early Civilizations of World History
- Ancient Civilizations in the Near East
- Early Chinese Civilization
- Early Indian Civilization
- History of Ancient Greece
- Hellenism and the Athenian Achievement
- The Rise of the Roman Republic
- History of the Fall of Rome
- The Rise of Christianity
- The Eastern Mediterranean
- Introduction to the Dark Ages
- African History
- The Early Middle Ages
- The Medieval Warm Period
- The High Middle Ages
- History of Asia (1000-1300 CE)
- Pre-European Civilizations in North America
- Eurasia and the Great Dynastic Empires
- The Late Middle Ages
- The Renaissance
- The Age of Exploration
- The Reformation Across Europe
- The Elizabethan Era
- The Enlightenment & World Revolutions
- World War I
- Between the World Wars
- World War II
- The Cold War
- Latin America Since 1900
- The 21st Century