Ch 25: Praxis Biology: Animal Reproduction and Development

About This Chapter

Let our professionally taught lessons on animal reproduction and development help you get ready for the Praxis Biology exam. Lesson summaries, self-assessment quizzes and video presentations provide you with the preparation you need to answer the questions correctly.

Praxis Biology: Animal Reproduction and Development - Chapter Summary

The purpose of the animal reproduction and development chapter is to build upon and refresh what you might have already learned in your introductory college science courses. Lesson topics in animal growth and aging are the same as those found on the Praxis Biology test and can help prepare you to answer the questions correctly. Among other topics, the instructor will cover the following:

  • Oogenesis and spermatogenesis, or the female and male reproductive systems
  • Early embryonic development, embryo implantation and placenta formation
  • Structure and function of the placenta and the fetus
  • Gastrulation and formation of the three embryonic germ layers (ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm)
  • Spemann's Organizer and the development of animal central nervous systems
  • Concentration gradients, developmental inhibitors and signaling molecules
  • How signaling molecules and fate mapping control differentiation and track cell development
  • The role of hormones in labor and childbirth

In a clear and concise manner, the instructor will describe each process, using photographic and visual aids to help you absorb the material. In addition to the easy-to-understand videos, the lesson summaries will also assist in your preparation for the Praxis test.

Objectives of the Praxis Biology Exam: Animal Reproduction and Development Course

The Praxis Biology exam is designed to assess an aspiring teacher's readiness to provide biology instruction at the secondary school level. Approximately 30% of the questions on the multiple-choice exam will test your knowledge of animal, life and plant diversity. In preparation for the test, each portion of the Animal Reproduction and Development chapter is accompanied by a self-assessment quiz that can help you determine how well you understood and retained the material. The questions are similar to those found on the computer- or paper-based exam and give you an idea of what to expect on test day.

Developed in accordance with the standards set forth by the National Science Teacher Association and the National Science Education Standards, the Praxis Biology exam questions emphasize critical-thinking and problem-solving skills, among others. Students should be aware in advance that the exam may include some questions that will not be applied to their scores.

11 Lessons in Chapter 25: Praxis Biology: Animal Reproduction and Development
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Overview of Animal Reproduction and Development

1. Overview of Animal Reproduction and Development

At this stage in life, you likely know where babies come from. However, did you know that some animals can make clones of themselves and reproduce sexually too? In this lesson, you'll learn more about sexual reproduction and early vertebrate development.

Spermatogenesis: How the Male Reproductive System Produces Sperm

2. Spermatogenesis: How the Male Reproductive System Produces Sperm

In this lesson, you'll learn the series of steps necessary to produce a fully functional sperm cell. You'll also look at the structure of a sperm cell and see how it's equipped to venture forth into new territory.

Early Embryonic Development: The Morula and Blastula

3. Early Embryonic Development: The Morula and Blastula

This lesson on the early stages of mammalian development covers the processes following fertilization, such as cleavage, the morula formation and blastula formation. Watch to learn what the inner cell mass, trophoblast cells and blastocyst are, as well as their functions within embryonic development.

Embryo Implantation and Placenta Formation

4. Embryo Implantation and Placenta Formation

This lesson will cover the journey the mammalian embryo first makes after it has been fertilized. Learn how maternal blood moves through the embryo, and how the placenta is formed.

The Placenta and the Fetus: Structure and Function

5. The Placenta and the Fetus: Structure and Function

Have you ever wondered how a baby eats before it's born or if babies go to the bathroom while still inside their mother? In this lesson, you will learn about the placenta and how it works to ensure a fetus stays well-nourished and healthy before birth.

Amniotic Fluid, The Amnion, and the Yolk Sac

6. Amniotic Fluid, The Amnion, and the Yolk Sac

From a chick developing inside an egg to a human baby growing in its mother's womb, all developing vertebrates rely on a support system to protect them, feed them, supply them with oxygen, remove wastes, and do much, much more to ensure that the embryo grows and develops into a fully functional organism. In this lesson, you'll learn about the different parts of that support system and some of the things that they do.

Gastrulation and the 3 Germ Layers (Ectoderm, Endoderm & Mesoderm)

7. Gastrulation and the 3 Germ Layers (Ectoderm, Endoderm & Mesoderm)

Gastrulation is a key process in embryonic development - it's how a simple ball of cells begins to grow into a fully functioning being! Watch this lesson to learn about a key process in the development of almost all multicellular organisms.

Spemann's Organizer: Controller of Cell Fate

8. Spemann's Organizer: Controller of Cell Fate

Have you ever wondered how different parts of a developing embryo know what kind of tissue to become? What prevents two heads from developing on the same embryo, or for that matter, what ensures that a head develops at all? A small group of cells called Spemann's organizer determines the fates of the cells around them.

Concentration Gradients, Signaling Molecules & Inhibitors in Development

9. Concentration Gradients, Signaling Molecules & Inhibitors in Development

The discovery and characterization of Spemann's organizer was a significant achievement in the field of developmental biology, but this small piece of the dorsal lip is only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to coordinating the differentiation of all of the various tissue types in a growing embryo. In this lesson, you'll learn about concentration gradients and how they can be used to create various combinations of signaling molecules in different parts of the embryo.

How Signaling Molecules Control Differentiation

10. How Signaling Molecules Control Differentiation

From signaling molecules to transcription factors and gene expression, in this lesson you'll learn what it takes for a cell to differentiate. You'll also learn some of the ways a cell can make sense of different combinations of signaling molecules and how these combinations can be used to guide a cell through the process of differentiation.

How Fate Mapping Is Used to Track Cell Development

11. How Fate Mapping Is Used to Track Cell Development

Over the years, scientists have developed several methods to label and track groups of cells as they develop. These types of experiments are called fate mapping studies. In this lesson, you'll learn the basics of fate mapping and see how technology has allowed scientists to improve fate mapping techniques.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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