About This Chapter
Praxis Biology: Animal Reproduction and Development - Chapter Summary
The purpose of the animal reproduction and development chapter is to build upon and refresh what you might have already learned in your introductory college science courses. Lesson topics in animal growth and aging are the same as those found on the Praxis Biology test and can help prepare you to answer the questions correctly. Among other topics, the instructor will cover the following:
- Oogenesis and spermatogenesis, or the female and male reproductive systems
- Early embryonic development, embryo implantation and placenta formation
- Structure and function of the placenta and the fetus
- Gastrulation and formation of the three embryonic germ layers (ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm)
- Spemann's Organizer and the development of animal central nervous systems
- Concentration gradients, developmental inhibitors and signaling molecules
- How signaling molecules and fate mapping control differentiation and track cell development
- The role of hormones in labor and childbirth
In a clear and concise manner, the instructor will describe each process, using photographic and visual aids to help you absorb the material. In addition to the easy-to-understand videos, the lesson summaries will also assist in your preparation for the Praxis test.
Objectives of the Praxis Biology Exam: Animal Reproduction and Development Course
The Praxis Biology exam is designed to assess an aspiring teacher's readiness to provide biology instruction at the secondary school level. Approximately 30% of the questions on the multiple-choice exam will test your knowledge of animal, life and plant diversity. In preparation for the test, each portion of the Animal Reproduction and Development chapter is accompanied by a self-assessment quiz that can help you determine how well you understood and retained the material. The questions are similar to those found on the computer- or paper-based exam and give you an idea of what to expect on test day.
Developed in accordance with the standards set forth by the National Science Teacher Association and the National Science Education Standards, the Praxis Biology exam questions emphasize critical-thinking and problem-solving skills, among others. Students should be aware in advance that the exam may include some questions that will not be applied to their scores.
1. Overview of Animal Reproduction and Development
At this stage in life, you likely know where babies come from. However, did you know that some animals can make clones of themselves and reproduce sexually too? In this lesson, you'll learn more about sexual reproduction and early vertebrate development.
2. Spermatogenesis: How the Male Reproductive System Produces Sperm
In this lesson, you'll learn the series of steps necessary to produce a fully functional sperm cell. You'll also look at the structure of a sperm cell and see how it's equipped to venture forth into new territory.
3. Early Embryonic Development: The Morula and Blastula
This lesson on the early stages of mammalian development covers the processes following fertilization, such as cleavage, the morula formation and blastula formation. Watch to learn what the inner cell mass, trophoblast cells and blastocyst are, as well as their functions within embryonic development.
4. Embryo Implantation and Placenta Formation
This lesson will cover the journey the mammalian embryo first makes after it has been fertilized. Learn how maternal blood moves through the embryo, and how the placenta is formed.
5. The Placenta and the Fetus: Structure and Function
Have you ever wondered how a baby eats before it's born or if babies go to the bathroom while still inside their mother? In this lesson, you will learn about the placenta and how it works to ensure a fetus stays well-nourished and healthy before birth.
6. Amniotic Fluid, The Amnion, and the Yolk Sac
From a chick developing inside an egg to a human baby growing in its mother's womb, all developing vertebrates rely on a support system to protect them, feed them, supply them with oxygen, remove wastes, and do much, much more to ensure that the embryo grows and develops into a fully functional organism. In this lesson, you'll learn about the different parts of that support system and some of the things that they do.
7. Gastrulation and the 3 Germ Layers (Ectoderm, Endoderm & Mesoderm)
Gastrulation is a key process in embryonic development - it's how a simple ball of cells begins to grow into a fully functioning being! Watch this lesson to learn about a key process in the development of almost all multicellular organisms.
8. Spemann's Organizer: Controller of Cell Fate
Have you ever wondered how different parts of a developing embryo know what kind of tissue to become? What prevents two heads from developing on the same embryo, or for that matter, what ensures that a head develops at all? A small group of cells called Spemann's organizer determines the fates of the cells around them.
9. Concentration Gradients, Signaling Molecules & Inhibitors in Development
The discovery and characterization of Spemann's organizer was a significant achievement in the field of developmental biology, but this small piece of the dorsal lip is only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to coordinating the differentiation of all of the various tissue types in a growing embryo. In this lesson, you'll learn about concentration gradients and how they can be used to create various combinations of signaling molecules in different parts of the embryo.
10. How Signaling Molecules Control Differentiation
From signaling molecules to transcription factors and gene expression, in this lesson you'll learn what it takes for a cell to differentiate. You'll also learn some of the ways a cell can make sense of different combinations of signaling molecules and how these combinations can be used to guide a cell through the process of differentiation.
11. How Fate Mapping Is Used to Track Cell Development
Over the years, scientists have developed several methods to label and track groups of cells as they develop. These types of experiments are called fate mapping studies. In this lesson, you'll learn the basics of fate mapping and see how technology has allowed scientists to improve fate mapping techniques.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the Praxis Biology (5235): Practice & Study Guide course
- Praxis Biology: Science Principles - Processes and Disciplines
- Praxis Biology: Science Principles - Hypotheses, Theories and Change
- Praxis Biology: Science Principles - Numbers
- Praxis Biology: Science Principles - Interpretation and Models
- Praxis Biology: Laboratory Safety
- Praxis Biology: Laboratory Equipment & Measurements
- Praxis Biology: Molecular Structure Basics
- Praxis Biology: Chemical Reactions
- Praxis Biology: Biological Molecules and Processes
- Praxis Biology: Cellular Energy Flow
- Praxis Biology: Cell Structures and Functions
- Praxis Biology: Cellular Division
- Praxis Biology: DNA and Replication
- Praxis Biology: RNA and Gene Expression
- Praxis Biology: Mutations and Other Genetic Changes
- Praxis Biology: Biology Lab Techniques
- Praxis Biology: DNA Technology
- Praxis Biology: Genetics and Inheritance
- Praxis Biology: Human Genetics
- Praxis Biology: Species, Populations and Evolution
- Praxis Biology: Origin of Life on Earth
- Praxis Biology: Classification of Organisms
- Praxis Biology: Human Anatomy and Physiology
- Praxis Biology: Immunology
- Praxis Biology: Plant Biology
- Praxis Biology: Plant Reproduction & Growth
- Praxis Biology: Population Ecology
- Praxis Biology: Ecosystem Ecology
- Praxis Biology: Human Impacts on the Environment
- Praxis Biology: Environment and Society
- Praxis Biology Flashcards