About This Chapter
Praxis Biology: Biological Molecules and Processes - Chapter Summary
Use the video lessons in this chapter to learn about organic molecules and how they function. You will get an overview of the types of molecules that are essential to life, including lipids and carbohydrates, along with an in-depth examination of the structure and role of proteins. Other lessons cover enzymes and coenzymes and how they work. By the conclusion of this chapter, you should have an understanding of the following topics:
- Organic molecules: functional groups, monomers and polymers
- Structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins
- Amino acids, polymerization and peptide bonds
- Function of enzymes, including activation energy and environmental effects
- Function and interactions of cofactors, coenzymes and prosthetic groups
- Inhibition and regulation of enzymatic reactions
- Cooperative binding
These concise video lessons are led by expert instructors who will show you what you need to be successful on the Praxis Biology exam. You can assess your knowledge with the quizzes that accompany each lesson and easily review important points by using the links provided in the videos.
Objectives of the Praxis Biology: Biological Molecules and Processes Chapter
These video lessons will help you prepare for the Praxis Biology: Content Knowledge exam, which many states require as a condition for obtaining teacher certification in that subject. The exam consists of 150 multiple-choice questions and has a two-hour time limit. You can take it as a paper test or on the computer.
The biology exam is divided into six sections, and the material covered in the Praxis Biology: Biological Molecules and Processes chapter is in section II, Molecular and Cellular Biology. This section, with 38 questions, makes up about 25% of the total test.
1. Introduction to Organic Molecules I: Functional Groups
If you've ever wondered what gives vinegar that sour flavor, you may not realize that you have contemplated functional groups. View this lesson for an introduction to organic chemistry, functional groups and how they are part of your daily life.
2. Introduction to Organic Molecules II: Monomers and Polymers
From everyday man-made items like milk jugs and styrofoam to natural proteins and plant materials, the world is full of polymers! Check out this lesson to learn how polymers are constructed on a molecular level.
3. Structure and Function of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are found in many foods that we eat and may be found as sugars, starches, or fiber. Learn more about these three distinct types of carbohydrates, and how they are distinguished through their chemical structures in this lesson.
4. Structure and Function of Lipids
Molecules called lipids have long hydrocarbon chains that determine the way they act. They can be fats, oils, or hormones, and even exist in our cell membranes. Learn more about the chemical structure and biological function of various lipids in this lesson.
5. Proteins I: Structure and Function
We need our proteins, not just as a major food group but for the many useful roles that they play in our bodies. In our introductory lesson to proteins, you'll learn about the many functions we rely on them to perform.
6. Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds
In this lesson, we'll take a deeper look at amino acids. You'll learn what makes a peptide, and what separates a protein from other kinds of amino acid bonds.
7. Proteins III: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids
How do amino acids form the intricate polypeptide chains found in proteins? It's a matter of chemistry. Join glycine, a special amino acid, as she sizes up the other amino acids.
8. Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure
How is progressing through higher order protein structures like crafting an essay? In this lesson, you'll explore everything from quaternary structures to denaturation as we show how the different structures are intertwined.
9. Function of Enzymes: Substrate, Active Site & Activation Energy
In this lesson, we'll learn how enzymes function to lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction. Enzymes bind to their substrates to perform all kinds of important and essential cellular processes, as well as processes that help you enjoy a slice of pizza!
10. Enzyme Activity & Inhibition: Structure, Substrates, pH & Temperature
Enzymes appreciate the right working conditions. Can you blame them? We all work best in the correct environment. In this lesson, we'll learn how substrate concentration, temperature, and pH affect enzyme activity and structure.
11. Coenzymes, Cofactors & Prosthetic Groups: Function and Interactions
Some enzymes require helpers to recognize a substrate or complete a reaction. These helpers include cofactors, coenzymes, and prosthetic groups, which are required for some enzymes' functions.
12. Enzymatic Reactions: Inhibition and Regulation
Enzymes are generally not allowed to run uncontrolled in a cell. While they are useful in catalyzing reactions, there is a time and place for everything. In this lesson, we'll discuss enzyme activators and inhibitors that regulate these reactions positively and negatively, respectively.
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Other chapters within the Praxis Biology (5235): Practice & Study Guide course
- Praxis Biology: Science Principles - Processes and Disciplines
- Praxis Biology: Science Principles - Hypotheses, Theories and Change
- Praxis Biology: Science Principles - Numbers
- Praxis Biology: Science Principles - Interpretation and Models
- Praxis Biology: Laboratory Safety
- Praxis Biology: Laboratory Equipment & Measurements
- Praxis Biology: Molecular Structure Basics
- Praxis Biology: Chemical Reactions
- Praxis Biology: Cellular Energy Flow
- Praxis Biology: Cell Structures and Functions
- Praxis Biology: Cellular Division
- Praxis Biology: DNA and Replication
- Praxis Biology: RNA and Gene Expression
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- Praxis Biology: Human Genetics
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- Praxis Biology: Origin of Life on Earth
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- Praxis Biology: Human Anatomy and Physiology
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- Praxis Biology: Plant Reproduction & Growth
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