About This Chapter
Praxis Biology: Biology Lab Techniques - Chapter Summary
Who was Frederick Sanger, and what type of innovative analysis did he develop? You can answer that question, and more, with the lessons in this chapter. Start preparing for your Praxis II test by reviewing the genetic engineering methods scientists use to make human insulin. Next, you can revisit the foundational aspects of plasmids, including multiple cloning sites, selectable markers and origins of replication. Study all the following concepts to prepare for the Praxis II Biology Content Knowledge exam:
- The use of microscopes in biology research
- The study of biological processes with the aid of spectrophotometry
- The use of ligase in recombinant DNA engineering
- Genetic engineering
- DNA plasmids
- Transformation of bacteria
- Polymerase chain reactions
- DNA sequencing with the Sanger method
You can experience the lessons through video, written transcript or both. Many lessons include links for additional text lessons covering related topics. Use the lessons as many times as you wish, and you can use the handy video tags to go back to specific portions for extra review.
Praxis Biology: Biology Lab Techniques Objectives
You should expect to answer approximately 38 questions pertinent to the topics outlined above on your Praxis II Biology Content Knowledge exam. About 12 additional questions pertaining to scientific inquiry in general may also apply. Together, those multiple-choice questions compose about 32% of the entire test. Make sure that you understand how DNA research contributes to genetic engineering, reviewing such topics as sequencing and transgenic cells, to be prepared for test day.
Our multiple-choice quizzes offer beneficial practice in the types of questions you might encounter on the Praxis. Your success on the test demonstrates not only your knowledge level, but also your readiness to teach secondary-level biology students.
1. How to Use Spectrophotometry to Understand Beer's Law
In this lesson, we'll learn about Beer's Law and how to use spectrophotometry to determine either molar absorbance or concentration in the Beer's Law equation.
2. How Ligase is Used to Engineer Recombinant DNA
DNA ligase makes recombinant DNA technology possible. In this lesson, you will learn how new versions of genes can be designed for experiments in novel host organisms using DNA ligase.
3. What is Genetic Engineering? - Definition and Examples
How do we make the insulin used by diabetic patients? In this lesson, you'll learn the basics of how genetic engineering can be used to transform a bacterial host cell into a genetically-modified organism that produces human insulin.
4. What is a DNA Plasmid? - Importance to Genetic Engineering
DNA plasmids play an integral part in most genetic engineering experiments. In this lesson, you'll learn about key features of a plasmid, such as a multiple cloning site, an origin of replication, and a selectable marker.
5. Restriction Enzymes: Function and Definition
Restriction enzymes played a critical role in the advent of genetic engineering. In this lesson, you will learn what role restriction enzymes play in creating recombinant DNA.
6. What is Agarose Gel Electrophoresis?
Agarose gel electrophoresis plays a key role in genetic engineering experiments. In this lesson, you'll learn what agarose is and how electrophoresis works. You'll also discover the use of agarose in this procedure.
7. Ethidium Bromide, Loading Buffer & DNA Ladder: Visualizing DNA and Determining its Size
In this lesson, you will learn about the role that ethidium bromide, loading buffers, and DNA ladders play in visualizing DNA and determining the size of DNA fragments in agarose gel electrophoresis.
8. Agarose Gel Electrophoresis: Equipment & Procedure
This lesson will review the concepts and mechanisms of agarose gel electrophoresis. It will also summarize the equipment needed to perform the procedure for DNA analysis.
9. Agarose Gel Electrophoresis: Results Analysis
Gel electrophoresis is used to analyze DNA restriction digest and ligation experiments. In this lesson, you will learn how to use a DNA ladder to interpret experimental results.
10. Bacterial Transformation: Antibiotic Selection and Positive & Negative Controls
The use of antibiotic selection and positive and negative controls are important elements of interpreting data from a bacterial transformation. In this lesson, you will learn how antibiotic selection results in colony formation and how controls help pinpoint the cause of experimental problems.
11. PCR: Reagents Used in Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a biotechnology technique that is used to amplify pieces of DNA. In this lesson, you will learn about five ingredients necessary to perform PCR: template DNA, nucleotides, primers, buffer and Taq polymerase.
12. PCR: Steps Involved in Polymerase Chain Reaction
In this lesson, you will learn about the steps required to amplify DNA during PCR. The lesson will explain the role template DNA, primers, nucleotides, Taq polymerase and PCR buffer play in the denaturation, annealing and extension steps of PCR.
13. The Sanger Method of DNA Sequencing
The ability to determine the DNA sequence of an individual is a powerful tool for paternity questions and criminal investigations, among other uses. This lesson will describe one laboratory method that can be used to sequence DNA.
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Other chapters within the Praxis Biology (5235): Practice & Study Guide course
- Praxis Biology: Science Principles - Processes and Disciplines
- Praxis Biology: Science Principles - Hypotheses, Theories and Change
- Praxis Biology: Science Principles - Numbers
- Praxis Biology: Science Principles - Interpretation and Models
- Praxis Biology: Laboratory Safety
- Praxis Biology: Laboratory Equipment & Measurements
- Praxis Biology: Molecular Structure Basics
- Praxis Biology: Chemical Reactions
- Praxis Biology: Biological Molecules and Processes
- Praxis Biology: Cellular Energy Flow
- Praxis Biology: Cell Structures and Functions
- Praxis Biology: Cellular Division
- Praxis Biology: DNA and Replication
- Praxis Biology: RNA and Gene Expression
- Praxis Biology: Mutations and Other Genetic Changes
- Praxis Biology: DNA Technology
- Praxis Biology: Genetics and Inheritance
- Praxis Biology: Human Genetics
- Praxis Biology: Species, Populations and Evolution
- Praxis Biology: Origin of Life on Earth
- Praxis Biology: Classification of Organisms
- Praxis Biology: Human Anatomy and Physiology
- Praxis Biology: Immunology
- Praxis Biology: Animal Reproduction and Development
- Praxis Biology: Plant Biology
- Praxis Biology: Plant Reproduction & Growth
- Praxis Biology: Population Ecology
- Praxis Biology: Ecosystem Ecology
- Praxis Biology: Human Impacts on the Environment
- Praxis Biology: Environment and Society
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