About This Chapter
Praxis Biology: Cellular Energy Flow - Chapter Summary
In the lessons in this chapter, you will learn about various processes that organisms employ for energy, including photosynthesis, cellular respiration and chemosynthesis. You will study mitochondrial and chloroplast structure and explore the products and steps of the citric acid, or Krebs, cycle, and the electron transport chain. Topics covered in these lessons that will help you on the biology exam include:
- Chlorophyll, stroma, thylakoid and grana
- How chlorophyll works to absorb light energy
- Definition, steps, recants and products of photolysis and light reactions
- The Calvin-Benson cycle of dark photosynthesis
- Cellular respiration
- The glycolysis pathway
- Comparison and examples of lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation
These concise video lessons are led by experienced instructors who use examples to illustrate their topics. You will be able to check what you've learned with the accompanying quizzes, and the format allows you to go back easily to re-watch key parts of the video.
Praxis Biology: Cellular Energy Flow Chapter Objectives
These lessons will help you prepare for the Praxis II Biology exam, which many states require in order to obtain certification to teach the subject at the secondary school level. The exam has 150 multiple-choice questions and a time limit of two hours. It can be taken as a paper test or via computer. The Praxis II Biology test has six sections, and the material covered in this chapter is in section II, Molecular and Cellular Biology. Section II has 38 questions, which comprise 25% of the total exam.
1. Chloroplast Structure: Chlorophyll, Stroma, Thylakoid, and Grana
In this lesson, we'll explore the parts of the chloroplast, such as the thylakoids and stroma, that make a chloroplast the perfect place for conducting photosynthesis in plant cells.
2. Chlorophyll: Absorbing Light Energy for Photosynthesis
Plants are clean, green, photosynthesizing machines. Using a specialized pigment called chlorophyll, plants are able to soak up energy from the sun and turn it into food. In this lesson, we'll start to learn why chlorophyll literally gets excited about a sunny day!
3. Photolysis and the Light Reactions: Definitions, Steps, Reactants & Products
In this lesson, we'll learn how electrons get excited during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, jumping off photosystem reaction centers like they were trampolines! In addition, we'll learn how the splitting of water creates reactants for this part of photosynthesis while creating a little fresh air for us.
4. Dark Reactions of Photosynthesis: The Calvin-Benson Cycle
Photosynthesis starts out using the energy from sunlight to get things started, but it ends with the dark reactions, which don't need sunshine to complete sugar production. In the Calvin cycle, ATP and NADPH from the light reactions are used to produce sugars.
5. Mitochondria Structure: Cristae, Matrix and Inner & Outer Membrane
If you want to make it through the day, you're going to need some energy. In this lesson, we'll learn about the organelle that supplies this energy, the mitochondrion, and why this cell structure appreciates the time you took to eat breakfast this morning!
6. Cellular Respiration: Energy Transfer in Cells
Watch this short video to learn the basics about converting organic compounds into ATP, also known as cellular respiration. We'll look at an overview of the process.
7. Glycolysis Pathway: Steps, Products & Importance
Cellular respiration creates chemical energy in the form of ATP from the food we eat and the air we breathe. In this lesson, we'll learn about the first part of this process, glycolysis.
8. The Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle: Products and Steps
In this lesson, we return to the process of cellular respiration for the second act of creating energy from food. In this act, products from glycolysis feed into the next stage, the citric acid cycle.
9. The Electron Transport Chain: Products and Steps
In this lesson, we'll learn about the finale of cellular respiration. The electron transport chain uses products from the first two acts of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to complete the chemical reaction that turns our food into usable cellular energy.
10. Lactic Acid & Alcoholic Fermentation: Comparison, Contrast & Examples
When in an anaerobic environment, some cells can use glycolysis and fermentation to keep producing ATP. Lactic acid fermentation happens in our muscle cells when we are exercising feverishly, while alcoholic fermentation is used in yeast cells and is what leads to beer, bread, and wine.
11. Differences Between Chemosynthesis & Photosynthesis
We all make food in different ways, and the same goes for bacteria, plants, and algae. This lesson goes over the two ways by which such organisms produce food: chemosynthesis and photosynthesis.
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Other chapters within the Praxis Biology (5235): Practice & Study Guide course
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