About This Chapter
Praxis Biology: DNA and Replication - Chapter Summary
DNA molecules hold the directions telling cells how to make essential biological structures. At first glance, this topic may seem somewhat complicated, but our chapter on DNA and replication can clarify the concepts through engaging videos, informative graphics and enlightening quizzes.
You can learn all about the functions of DNA and the composition of nucleotides. Although 'double helix' might sound more like the name of a rock band, you can see what this structure really is and hear about its discovery, which was a huge step towards our current understanding of heredity. All of the topics below are included in these lessons:
- The chemical structure of phosphodiester bonds and nucleic acids
- Complementary base pairing, cytosine, adenine, thymine and guanine
- Double helix and the hereditary molecule
- Distinctions between DNA and RNA
- Models, groundwork, activities and elements of DNA replication
Instructors who are very knowledgeable in their fields present these lessons on DNA and replication. You can watch the videos as often as you like, read the accompanying transcripts and take the quizzes at the end of each lesson. If you want to go back and review a specific topic, you can use the handy timeline with video tags to find just the right spot. Many of the lessons also include links to additional text lessons that provide even more information about key terms and topics.
Praxis Biology: DNA and Replication Objectives
Questions pertaining to these topics are included in the molecular and cellular biology content area of the test, which has about 38 questions, or approximately 25%, of the Praxis II Biology Content Knowledge exam. You should be prepared to demonstrate an understanding of the differences between DNA and RNA, the steps in the replication of DNA and the relationship between DNA and heredity.
The test assesses your knowledge about the concepts, in addition to analyzing your readiness to teach biology for secondary students. The questions are multiple-choice, for which our quizzes can provide valuable practice.
1. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds
In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.
2. DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing
Learn the language of nucleotides as we look at the nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. Armed with this knowledge, you'll also see why DNA strands must run in opposite directions.
3. DNA: Discovery, Facts, Structure & Function in Heredity
This lesson will help you to navigate the twists and turns of DNA's structure. We'll also clue you in on the amazing discoveries that put this nucleic acid in the limelight as the molecule of heredity.
4. Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)
In this lesson, you'll explore RNA structure and learn the central dogma of molecular biology. Along the way, you'll meet the three types of RNA and see how the cell uses them most effectively.
5. What Is DNA Replication? - Conservative, Semi-Conservative & Dispersive Models
How do we know that DNA replication is semi-conservative? How do we know it's not conservative or dispersive? Let's follow the famous experiment by Meselson and Stahl to find out!
6. How Helicase Unwinds the DNA Double Helix in Preparation for Replication
How does semi-conservative replication begin? Discover how DNA helicase creates a replication fork to unwind the complicated DNA molecule and allow daughter strands to form on the parental template.
7. How DNA Polymerase and RNA Primase Initiate DNA Replication
How do enzymes assist in starting DNA replication? In this lesson, we explore the work of a contributing enzyme, DNA polymerase, and learn how the RNA primer is made by the action of RNA primase.
8. DNA Replication: The Leading Strand and DNA Polymerase Activities
How does replication occur in the antiparallel DNA molecule? In this lesson, explore the significance of the leading and lagging strands, and learn how Okazaki fragments and RNA ligase make DNA replication possible.
9. DNA Replication: Review of Enzymes, Replication Bubbles & Leading and Lagging Strands
Feeling lost in the thorny details of DNA replication? This lesson provides an overview of semi-conservative replication, with a focus on putting together all of the concepts involved. We'll review the work of each enzyme on our way to completing the big picture of DNA replication.
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