About This Chapter
Praxis Biology: Human Anatomy and Physiology - Chapter Summary
This comprehensive review of the physiological processes that work together harmoniously can help you get ready for the Praxis II Biology Content Knowledge exam. Learn about the human anatomical components and the functions of each. You can also find out about the safeguards that are in place, including innate immunity, acquired immunity, vaccines and antibiotics. The lessons in this chapter can teach you about:
- Skeletal, respiratory, muscular, circulatory, digestive, excretory and nervous systems
- Carbohydrate digestion process
- Varieties of connective tissue
- Hormonal control and temperature regulation
- Two types of immune systems
- Critical breakthroughs in disease prevention and control
- Viruses and pathogens
Each lesson offers a video with engaging graphics and tags to locate specific portions of information. Written transcripts are also readily available for reinforcement. A short quiz appears at the end of each lesson so that you can check for content mastery.
Praxis Biology: Human Anatomy and Physiology Objectives
The questions on your Praxis II Biology Content Knowledge exam that concern the topics above appear mainly in the section attributed to the diversity of life. This portion contains about 45 multiple-choice questions and composes approximately 30% of the exam. You can expect to answer questions about the major characteristics of humans, in addition to the composition and processes of the main organ systems.
Your performance on this test indicates both your knowledge of these concepts and your readiness to teach them to high school students. The quizzes contained in each lesson can help you experience the same types of questions that may appear on your test.
1. Chemical Digestion of Carbohydrates: Definition & Process
Carbohydrates are an important energy source, but must be broken down to be absorbed out of the digestive tract. In this lesson, you will learn how disaccharides and polysaccharides are broken down to monosaccharides through a process called hydrolysis.
2. Multicellular Organisms, Tissues and Epithelium
In this lesson on multicellular organisms, you'll take a look at what it actually means to be multicellular and how cells are organized into tissues, organs, and organ systems. This lesson also covers one of the four main tissue types: epithelial tissue.
3. Types of Connective Tissue
In this lesson, you'll learn about the various types of connective tissues in the body. These tissues include bone, fat, cartilage and blood. They form the framework of the body, support organs and much, much more!
4. Skeletal System and Muscular System
Do you know how many bones are in the human body? Check out this video lesson to uncover the answer, as well as understand the role and importance of the skeletal and muscular systems.
5. The Human Circulatory System: Parts and Functions
In this lesson, you will take a ride on the transportation system of the body called the circulatory system and its two parts: the pulmonary circuit and the systemic circuit. Take a look inside and see how every inch of your body receives the oxygen and nutrients it needs.
6. Gas Exchange in the Human Respiratory System
Did you know that the average human lung has a respiratory surface area that is roughly the same size as half of a tennis court? Believe it or not, that's how much surface area an active, healthy human needs to ensure that the body gets plenty of oxygen.
7. Digestive System I: The Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
Did you know that there are digestive enzymes in your saliva? It's true. As soon as you put a piece of food in your mouth, the digestive process begins. Join us with this first of two lessons about the human digestive system, where we'll follow food through the upper gastrointestinal tract from the mouth through the stomach.
8. Digestive System II: The Lower Gastrointestinal Tract
The lower gastrointestinal tract is the part of the digestive system that is responsible for the last part of food digestion and the expulsion of waste from the body. In this lesson, we'll look at each part of the system and what functions each serves in the process of digestion.
9. Excretory System
Each year in the U.S., close to 400,000 people with kidney failure undergo dialysis treatment in order to remove waste, remove excess fluid and restore electrolyte balance. Kidneys, the workhorses of the excretory system, perform these same functions more effectively than any machine. In this lesson, we'll talk about how the excretory system removes toxic substances from the body.
10. Homeostasis in the Human Body
Homeostasis is the term we use to describe the reasonably stable internal environment of your body. Learn how parts of your body communicate with each other to maintain this state of homeostasis, and how negative feedback loops work.
11. Functions of the Nervous System
In this lesson, we'll watch Timmy as he plays in his backyard. Watch what happens when he tries to catch a butterfly, hears a mean dog bark, and scrapes his knee. All of Timmy's reactions are tied to his nervous system. For a full explanation of what goes on in the human nervous system, check out the video!
12. The Structure and Function of Neurons
In this video lesson, you'll learn about neurons, which are specialized cells in the nervous system. Check out how far neurons can send signals throughout the body and how depolarization is much like 'the wave' at a football game.
13. The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems
Did you know that hammerhead sharks and platypuses share a special type of sensory neuron that humans and most other animals don't have? In this lesson, you'll find out what that sensory neuron and a whole lot of others can do. You'll also learn how the nervous system is organized and the differences between the central and peripheral nervous systems.
14. The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems
In this lesson, you'll learn about two subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system - the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Watch as a hiker, Phil, runs away from a terrifying bear and see how these systems react to the impending danger!
15. The Human Brain: Structure & Functions
The human brain can be divided into three sections. In this lesson, we'll examine the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain, as well as the major structures in each. We'll also cover the functions of major brain structures.
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Other chapters within the Praxis Biology (5235): Practice & Study Guide course
- Praxis Biology: Science Principles - Processes and Disciplines
- Praxis Biology: Science Principles - Hypotheses, Theories and Change
- Praxis Biology: Science Principles - Numbers
- Praxis Biology: Science Principles - Interpretation and Models
- Praxis Biology: Laboratory Safety
- Praxis Biology: Laboratory Equipment & Measurements
- Praxis Biology: Molecular Structure Basics
- Praxis Biology: Chemical Reactions
- Praxis Biology: Biological Molecules and Processes
- Praxis Biology: Cellular Energy Flow
- Praxis Biology: Cell Structures and Functions
- Praxis Biology: Cellular Division
- Praxis Biology: DNA and Replication
- Praxis Biology: RNA and Gene Expression
- Praxis Biology: Mutations and Other Genetic Changes
- Praxis Biology: Biology Lab Techniques
- Praxis Biology: DNA Technology
- Praxis Biology: Genetics and Inheritance
- Praxis Biology: Human Genetics
- Praxis Biology: Species, Populations and Evolution
- Praxis Biology: Origin of Life on Earth
- Praxis Biology: Classification of Organisms
- Praxis Biology: Immunology
- Praxis Biology: Animal Reproduction and Development
- Praxis Biology: Plant Biology
- Praxis Biology: Plant Reproduction & Growth
- Praxis Biology: Population Ecology
- Praxis Biology: Ecosystem Ecology
- Praxis Biology: Human Impacts on the Environment
- Praxis Biology: Environment and Society
- Praxis Biology Flashcards