About This Chapter
Praxis Biology: Human Genetics - Chapter Summary
The lessons in this chapter explain how family histories are used in human genetics research and describe the links between genetics and cancer. This chapter describes symptoms and causes of genetic disorders like Tay-Sachs disease and hemophilia. You can also find out more about the workings of both pre- and post-natal genetic testing, in this preparation for your Praxis II Biology Content Knowledge exam. The topics below are all included in this chapter:
- Human disorders caused by chromosome changes
- Research methods used in human genetics
- Inheritance patterns and pedigree analysis
- Various genetic disorders
- Genetic risk factors for cancer
- Genetic testing
Well-informed instructors present our lessons on human genetics. You can watch the videos, read the transcripts and take the quizzes. Use the lessons as many times as you want, and merely click on a video tag if you're looking for a certain topic within a video for more review. Many lessons also offer links to additional text-only lessons that can give you even more support for certain foundational terms.
Praxis Biology: Human Genetics Objectives
Most of the questions concerning human genetics on the Praxis II Biology Content Knowledge exam occur in the section about evolution and classical genetics, which comprises about 15% of the exam through approximately 23 questions. For success in this portion of the test, you should review Mendel's laws, genetic mutations, evolution, origins of life, extinction and speciation, in addition to the topics listed above.
The questions are all multiple-choice, for which our quizzes can give you valuable practice. The Praxis analyzes your readiness to teach secondary-level students, in addition to assessing your knowledge of biology concepts.
1. Human Genetics Research Methods: Pedigrees and Population Genetics
Have you ever wondered how people study human genetics? Do you know what a pedigree or a complex disease is? In this lesson you'll learn about some of the techniques that human geneticists use and what pedigrees and complex diseases have to do with human genetics.
2. Pedigree Analysis in Human Genetics: Tutorial
One of the oldest genetic techniques is pedigree analysis, and yet it is still used every day all around the world by doctors, geneticists, and genetic counselors. Building and reading a pedigree is actually fairly easy if you know what the symbols mean. In fact, it's so easy that you can learn how to do it in less than ten minutes if you watch this video!
3. Pedigree Analysis in Human Genetics: Inheritance Patterns
So you've learned what a pedigree is and how to read or even create one. Now you're ready to learn how to analyze a pedigree and figure out what kind of inheritance pattern a genetic condition follows!
4. Genetic Disorders: Penetrance & Phenotypic Variability
Did you know that sometimes a dominant human genetic condition will skip a generation in a family? It does happen, and some dominant genetic conditions will also have a wide range of phenotypes, sometimes even within the same family. Learn more in this lesson about phenotypic variability!
5. What Is Tay-Sachs Disease? - Symptoms and Genetic Cause
Tay-Sachs is a devastating genetic disorder that is seen in infants starting when they are only three to six months old. Children who suffer from this disease usually die by the age of four. Learn more about the symptoms and genetic causes of this autosomal recessive disorder.
6. Haplosufficient Genes and Inheritance Patterns of Lethal Alleles
Have you ever wondered why some genetic conditions are recessive while others are dominant? In this lesson, you'll learn about haplosufficiency and how it can sometimes determine whether a genetic condition is dominant or recessive.
7. What Is Hemophilia? - Symptoms, Genetic Cause & Treatment
In this lesson, you'll learn about a group of hereditary bleeding disorders collectively known as hemophilia. You'll learn why afflicted people don't form blood clots and why most hemophiliacs are males.
8. What Is Huntington's Disease? - Symptoms, Genetic Cause & Treatment
In this lesson, you'll learn about a neurodegenerative disorder called Huntington's disease. You'll learn what a CAG repeat is, and how the number of these repeats can be used to predict whether or not a person will get Huntington's disease.
9. Tumor Suppressor Genes: Retinoblastoma Features, Genetic Cause & Treatment
In this lesson, you'll learn about retinoblastoma, which is a rare childhood cancer of the retina. Retinoblastoma is often inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Find out why retinoblastoma and other types of hereditary cancers are caused by dominant alleles by watching this lesson.
10. Cancer Syndromes & Genetic Risk Factors for Cancer
This lesson describes something called cancer syndrome or family cancer syndrome, as well as the important clues that can help it be detected and two examples of such a condition.
11. Sex Determination, X-Inactivation, and Barr Bodies
Sex determination, X-inactivation and Barr bodies are complex chromosomal processes. Learn more about each of these processes and test your knowledge with a quiz.
12. Turner Syndrome and Trisomy X: Types of Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy
Most females have two X chromosomes, which is what makes them women. But what happens when there are more or less than two X chromosomes in a woman's DNA? In this lesson, we'll explore Turner syndrome and Trisomy X.
13. Klinefelter and XYY Syndrome: Types of Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy
Most boys and men have two sex chromosomes. But what happens when a male has more than two sex chromosomes? In this lesson, we'll explore two examples of male aneuploidy: Klinefelter Syndrome and XYY Syndrome.
14. How Prenatal and Postnatal Genetic Testing Works
Have you ever wondered why pregnant women have so many doctor visits and need so many tests done? Learn more about how prenatal and postnatal genetic testing works and test your knowledge with a quiz.
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