About This Chapter
Praxis Biology: Science Principles - Hypotheses, Theories and Change - Chapter Summary
In this chapter's lessons, you will learn about what constitutes hypotheses, theories, predictions and laws and the differences between them. Other lessons look at how various scientific ideas, such as atomic theory and cell theory, have evolved over the years. You will also learn about notable scientists, including Louis Pasteur, Ernest Rutherford and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, and their work. This chapter will help prepare you for Praxis Biology test by discussing the following topics:
- Testing and disproving hypotheses
- Using data to formulate theories
- Early atomic theory
- Germ theory and pasteurization
- Development of DNA theory
- Classification systems and how they were created
- How our understanding of heredity and evolution developed
In these concise videos, experienced educators discuss each topic, and you can use the embedded links to review key points as many times as you need. You can assess what you've learned through the quizzes that accompany each lesson. The questions simulate ones you'll be asked on the Praxis Biology exam.
Praxis Biology: Science Principles - Hypotheses, Theories and Change Chapter Objectives
In many states, applicants for teaching licenses must pass the Praxis exam in the subject they wish to teach. The Praxis Biology: Content Knowledge exam has 150 multiple-choice questions and can be taken as a computerized test or in a paper version. There is a two-hour time limit. The exam has six sections, and the topics covered in this chapter's lessons are in section I, Basic Principles of Science. The 12 questions in section I make up 8% of the total exam.
1. Hypothesis, Theory & Law in Science
In this lesson, learn how to define hypothesis, theory, and law in science. Then, discover the ways that these ideas are related to each other and how they help us to explain the universe around us.
2. Hypothesis Testing: Comparing the Null & Alternative Hypothesis
This lesson explores the process of comparing the null and the alternative hypothesis, as well as how to differentiate between the two after your testing is done.
3. The Development of Scientific Theories
It takes quite a bit of time to develop a scientific theory, and it is a rigorous process. This lesson will describe what scientific theories are and how they are developed by scientists.
4. The Durability of Scientific Laws
Scientific laws are durable and hold up over time. This lesson will help you understand what a scientific law is and why scientific laws are so durable.
5. Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan
Imagine firing a bullet at a piece of tissue paper and having it bounce back at you! You would probably be just as surprised as Rutherford when he discovered the nucleus. In this lesson, we are going to travel back in time and discuss some of the major discoveries in the history of the atom.
6. Major Contributors to Cell Theory
The idea that all living things are made up of cells which can only come from other living cells, is known as cell theory. In this lesson, we take a look at the scientists who helped to further its understanding.
7. The Germ Theory of Disease: Definition & Louis Pasteur
In this lesson, we will look at one of the most influential experiments in the field of microbiology. We will learn how Louis Pasteur disproved the theory of spontaneous generation which helped lead to the development of the germ theory of disease.
8. What Is Pasteurization? - Definition & Common Uses
This lesson will discuss pasteurization, Louis Pasteur, and mastitis. We'll focus in on how pasteurization works, what it's used on, and why it's important to your health.
9. Genetic Material: Definition, Structure & Function
Genetic material, also known as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), plays a fundamental role in the composition of living organisms. Learn more about the definition, structure, and function, then test your understanding with a quiz.
10. Carolus Linnaeus: Classification, Taxonomy & Contributions to Biology
There are millions of species on Earth. How can we name and organize all of them without getting confused? We use a system developed in the 1700s by Carolus Linnaeus. Learn more about him and his contributions in this lesson.
11. Developments in Heredity, Evolution & Ecology
Advancements in the fields of evolution, heredity, and ecology have been significant in the past couple of centuries. Here we will investigate the major developments in these fields, with emphasis on the more recent.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the Praxis Biology (5235): Practice & Study Guide course
- Praxis Biology: Science Principles - Processes and Disciplines
- Praxis Biology: Science Principles - Numbers
- Praxis Biology: Science Principles - Interpretation and Models
- Praxis Biology: Laboratory Safety
- Praxis Biology: Laboratory Equipment & Measurements
- Praxis Biology: Molecular Structure Basics
- Praxis Biology: Chemical Reactions
- Praxis Biology: Biological Molecules and Processes
- Praxis Biology: Cellular Energy Flow
- Praxis Biology: Cell Structures and Functions
- Praxis Biology: Cellular Division
- Praxis Biology: DNA and Replication
- Praxis Biology: RNA and Gene Expression
- Praxis Biology: Mutations and Other Genetic Changes
- Praxis Biology: Biology Lab Techniques
- Praxis Biology: DNA Technology
- Praxis Biology: Genetics and Inheritance
- Praxis Biology: Human Genetics
- Praxis Biology: Species, Populations and Evolution
- Praxis Biology: Origin of Life on Earth
- Praxis Biology: Classification of Organisms
- Praxis Biology: Human Anatomy and Physiology
- Praxis Biology: Immunology
- Praxis Biology: Animal Reproduction and Development
- Praxis Biology: Plant Biology
- Praxis Biology: Plant Reproduction & Growth
- Praxis Biology: Population Ecology
- Praxis Biology: Ecosystem Ecology
- Praxis Biology: Human Impacts on the Environment
- Praxis Biology: Environment and Society
- Praxis Biology Flashcards