About This Chapter
Praxis Chemistry: Math, Measurement & Data Management in Chemistry - Chapter Summary
Math, measurement and data management functions perform a critical role in the scientific inquiry process. This chapter covers topics such as the metric system units, unit conversion, nonstandard units of measurement, and organizing and understanding data with tables and schedules. After completing the lessons, you'll be well-versed in the following skills you could be asked to demonstrate on the Praxis Chemistry exam:
- Working with significant figures and scientific notation
- Reading, constructing and interpreting scientific graphs, charts and tables
- Performing basic error analysis
- Differentiating between qualitative and qualitative data in research methods
- Explaining measurements and uncertainty in science
- Identifying possible reasons for inconsistent experiment results
- Examining the accuracy and validity of scientific sources
- Utilizing techniques to maintain data integrity
The lessons in this chapter help you brush up on practical skills while learning ways to approach the types of questions you'll encounter on the Praxis Chemistry test. The lessons are presented with fun graphics and real-world examples that make studying more enjoyable.
1. The Metric System: Units and Conversion
Scientists all over the world need to use a common language when reporting the measurements they make, which they do by using the metric system. Explore the metric units for length, mass, volume, density, and temperature, and discover how to make different conversions.
2. Unit Conversion and Dimensional Analysis
Dimensional analysis is used in converting different units of measure through the multiplication of a given proportion or conversion factor. Learn how to solve single-step and multi-step problems using dimensional analysis and understand the cancellation of units in a numerator and denominator.
3. Significant Figures and Scientific Notation
A significant figure is a number that is necessary to express precise measurements. All non-zero numbers, zeros located between two non-zero numbers, and trailing zeros in numbers with a decimal point are significant figures. Learn about significant figures and how to express calculations in scientific notation.
4. Standard & Nonstandard Units of Measurement: Concepts & Instruments
Depending on one's location or discipline, the units of measurement used to calculate distance or size will vary. Explore the concepts of standard and nonstandard units of measurement, with examples of instruments that can be used for each.
5. How to Accurately Perform Basic Error Analysis
In this lesson, learn about the different types of error that can affect a measurement and how to correct for them. In addition, learn how to quantify the amount of error in a measurement, a process called error analysis.
6. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Data in Various Research Methods
Qualitative data and quantitative data are both useful in research, but it is important to understand the differences between the two. Learn how to differentiate the two types of data in this lesson.
7. How to Construct Graphs from Data & Interpret Them
When constructing graphs for the purpose of a report or presentation, it is important to draw from correct interpretations of data. Learn more about graph data and scatter plots, explore graph construction, and consider how best to interpret graph data.
8. How to Read Scientific Graphs & Charts
Scientists often rely on graphs and charts to organize information, as well as compare it to other scientific findings and share the information with others. Learn about the more commonly used scientific graphs and charts, including line graphs, as well as bar, pie, and flow charts. Understand the variables used to create these graphs and charts and recognize the x and y axes.
9. Organizing and Understanding Data with Tables & Schedules
Organizing data into tables and schedules is a useful method to better understand and process large amounts of information. Learn about tables, schedules, and how to organize data for better comprehension.
10. Measurements & Uncertainty in Science
To be valid and reliable, scientific experiments must be based on data that is precise and accurate. Explore techniques for making measurements, review example measurements, and understand how to make calculations with measurements.
11. Identifying Potential Reasons for Inconsistent Experiment Results
When experiments are conducted, the results may vary and it's important to identify potential reasons for inconsistent experimental results. Learn about controlled and uncontrolled conditions, and random experimental error to recognize why experiment results may be inconsistent, and understand how to obtain consistent results.
12. Evaluating Data from Scientific Investigation
Data collected from scientific experiments can be analyzed in its accuracy (correctness), reproducibility, and precision of measurements. Learn how these three factors are used to analyze scientific data.
13. Scientific Sources: Accuracy, Reliability & Validity
Using sources is a vital part of scientific research, but it's important that these scientific sources are credible. Learn strategies used to ensure a source for a scientific article or paper is valid, reliable, and accurate.
14. Techniques to Maintain Data Integrity from Scientific Instruments
Discrepancies in measurement or calculation techniques result in less precise and valuable data. Learn different techniques to maintain data integrity by calibrating, measuring accurately, and properly accounting for significant figures with scientific instruments.
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Other chapters within the Praxis Chemistry: Content Knowledge (5245): Practice & Study Guide course
- About the Praxis Chemistry Test
- Praxis Chemistry: Matter and Energy
- Praxis Chemistry: Thermodynamics
- Properties of Liquids & Solids
- Praxis Chemistry: Gases
- Praxis Chemistry: Atomic Structure
- Praxis Chemistry: Nuclear Structure
- Praxis Chemistry: Nomenclature and Chemical Composition
- Praxis Chemistry: Bonding
- Praxis Chemistry: Periodicity
- Praxis Chemistry: Stoichiometric Calculations
- Praxis Chemistry: Chemical Reactions & Kinetics
- Praxis Chemistry: Chemical Reaction Equilibrium
- Praxis Chemistry: Biochemistry
- Praxis Chemistry: Solutions & Solubility
- Praxis Chemistry: Acid-Base Chemistry
- Praxis Chemistry: Scientific Inquiry & Experimental Design
- Praxis Chemistry: Lab Procedures & Safety in Chemistry
- Praxis Chemistry: Overview of Environmental Chemistry
- Praxis Chemistry Flashcards